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Biotechnology

Abstract The article contains sections titled: 1 Introduction 2 Basics in Microbiology 2.1 Microbiology – the Science of Microscopic Life Forms 2.2. Phylogeny and Taxonomy of Microorganisms 2.2.1 Definition and Survey 2.2.2 Bacteria 2.2.3 Archaea 2.2.4 Morphological and Physiological Properties for the Identification of Prokaryotic Species 2.2.5 Eukaryotic Microorganisms 2.2.5.1 Definition 2.2.5.2 Fungi 3 Metabolism 3.1 Microbial Systems Biology 3.2 Energy Production 3.3 Substrate Transport 3.4 Catabolism 3.4.1 Photosynthesis 3.4.2 Chemosynthesis 3.4.3 Carbohydrate Metabolism 3.4.4 Aerobic Processes 3.4.5 Fats and Fatty Acid Metabolism 3.4.6 Hydrocarbon Metabolism 3.4.7 Amino Acid Metabolism 3.4.8 Anaerobic Metabolic Processes 3.4.9 Single‐Carbon‐Compound Metabolism 3.4.10 Inorganic Metabolism 3.5 Biosynthesis 3.5.1 Amino Acids 3.5.2 Lipids 3.5.3 RNA and DNA 3.6 Regulation 4 Metabolic Engineering 4.1 Analysis of the Transcriptom, Proteome, and Metabolome 4.1.1 Gene Expression Analysis using DNA Microarrays 4.1.2 Fabrication of DNA microarrays 4.1.3 Proteome Analysis using Protein Microarrays 4.2 Metabolome Analysis and Metabolite Flux Analysis 4.3 Design and Production of Genetically Optimized Strains for Production – In Vitro Mutagenesis 4.4 Random Mutagenesis, Isolation and Selection of Mutants 4.5 Types of Mutants and Selection Principles 4.5.1 Auxotrophic Mutants 4.5.2 Regulatory Mutants 4.5.3 Other Selection Methods 4.5.4 Targeted or Site‐Directed Mutagenesis 5 Cultivation and Bioprocesses 5.1 Isolation of Microorganisms 5.2 Requirements for Growth 5.2.1 Chemical Composition of Bacterial Cells 5.2.2 Carbon and Energy Sources 5.2.12 Media preparation 5.3 Sterilization 5.4 Types of Bioprocesses 5.4.1 Surface Culture 5.4.2 Submerged Culture 5.5 Process Layout 5.5.1 Reactors 5.5.2 Containments for Anaerobic Processes 5.5.3 Reactors for Aerobic Processes 5.5.4 Inoculation 5.5.5 Operation Modes 6 Biocatalysis and Biotransformation 6.1 Introduction 6.2 Classification of Biocatalysts 6.3 History 6.4 Characteristics of Enzyme Reactions Used in Biotransformations 6.5 Types of Biocatalysts and Reaction Systems 6.5.1 Biotransformation with Growing Cultures 6.5.2 Biotransformation Conversion with Previously Grown Cells 6.5.2.1 Vegetative or Washed Cells 6.5.2.2 Permealized Cells 6.5.2.3 Dried Cells 6.5.3 Biotransformation with Spores 6.5.4 Biotransformation with Immobilized Cells 6.5.5 Biotransformation with Cell‐free Enzymes or Purified Enzymes 6.5.6 Multistep Reactions Using Different Biocatalysts 6.5.7 Multiphase Reaction Systems 6.6 Process Design 6.6.1 General Considerations 6.6.1.1 Evaluating Enzyme Potential 6.6.1.2 Finding Suitable Enzymes 6.6.1.3 Substrates 6.6.1.4 Media 6.6.2 Selection of Biocatalysts 6.6.2.1 Screening 6.6.2.2 Enrichment 6.6.2.3 Molecular Engineering 6.7 Improvement of Conversion Processes 6.8 Conclusion and Outlook 7 Downstream Processing 7.1 Sample Disruption 7.2 Solid–Liquid Separations 7.3 Product Recovery 7.4 Solvent Extraction 8 Monitoring and Modeling of Bioprocesses 8.1 Characteristics of Bioprocesses 8.1.1 System Definition 8.1.2 System Description 8.1.3 Dynamics of Biosystems and Real‐Time Considerations 8.2 Biotechnological Measurement Systems 8.2.1 Process Requirements Concerning Measuring Quantities 8.2.2 Online Sensing Devices 8.2.3 Further Aspects Concerning Measuring Systems 8.3 Cognitive Computing 8.3.1 Fuzzy Logic Systems 8.3.2 Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) 8.4 Modeling Aspects of Biological Systems 8.4.1 Steps in Creating a Model 8.4.2 Reasons for Making a Model 8.4.3 Different Types and Basic Approaches for Building a Model 9 Special Applications in Biotechnology 9.1 Mammalian Cell Culture Technology 9.1.1 Introduction 9.1.2 Products from Mammalian Cells 9.1.3 Cell Types 9.1.4 Growth Medium for Cell Culture 9.1.5 Small‐Scale Culture Systems for Routine Use 9.1.6 Types of Bioreactors 9.1.7 Process Strategies 9.1.8 Downstream Processes 9.1.9 Regulatory and Safety Issues 9.2 Tissue Engineering 9.2.1 Application of Tissue Engineering 9.2.2 Principle of Tissue Engineering 9.2.3 Strategies 9.2.4 The Essentials 9.2.5 Cells 9.2.6 Biomatrices 9.2.7 Bioreactors for Tissue Engineering 9.2.8 Growing New from Old 9.3 Biotechnology and Food 9.3.1 Production of Food Additives by Cell Culture Systems 9.3.1.1 Amino Acids 9.3.1.2 Organic Acids 9.3.1.3 Vitamins 9.3.1.4 Sweet Compounds 9.3.1.5 Sugar Alcohols 9.3.1.6 Microbial Saccharides 9.3.1.7 Conjugated Linoleic Acids (CLA) 9.3.1.8 Lactulose 9.3.2 Enzyme‐Catalyzed Processes 9.3.2.1 Starch‐Modifying Enzymes 9.3.2.2 Lipases 9.3.2.3 Pectin‐Degrading Enzymes 9.3.2.4 Chymosin (Aspartic Protease) 9.4 Biotechnology and Health 9.4.1 Individualized Medicine 9.4.2 Clinical Diagnosis as Indicated in Genetic Anomalies in Cancer 9.4.3 Pharmaceutical Development 9.4.4 Define Molecular Mechanisms of Toxicity 9.4.5 Detection of Genetically Modified Organisms 10 Concluding Remarks 11 Acknowledgement Biotechnology can be regarded as one of the key technologies of the 21st century. It is the commercial application of living organisms such as bacteria, fungi, yeasts, plant cells, viruses, and mammalian cells or their products, which involves the deliberate manipulation of their DNA molecules. This article gives an introduction into the basics in microbiology and provides an exhaustive description of the relevant microbial species and metabolic pathways. Identification, analysis, and manipulation of the genome, proteome, and metabolome is described, and cultivation requirements as well as process parameters discussed. Biotransformation and enzyme technology plays a central role in industrial biotechnology, and a focus is given on the development of molecular engineering techniques and new screening methods. Computational Biochemistry comprises the definition, monitoring, and modeling of bioprocesses. Examples of biotechnology applications include mammalian cell technology, tissue engineering, and the production of relevant food additives as well as of various medical and pharmaceutical products. In conclusion, biotechnology offers manifold possibilities in industrial and medical applications.

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