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Carbonic Esters

Abstract The article contains sections titled: 1. Introduction 2. Properties 3. Production 3.1. Phosgenation of Alcohols 3.2. Phosgenation of Phenols 3.3. Oxidative Carbonylation of Alcohols 3.4. Oxidative Carbonylation of Phenols 3.5. Oxidative Carbonylation of Alcohols with NOx 3.6. Carbonic Esters from Oxalic Esters 3.7. Electrochemical Oxidative Carbonylation of Alcohols 3.8. Reaction of CO2 with Oxiranes 3.9. Reactions of Alcohols with Urea 3.10. Reaction of Phenols with Urea 3.11. Miscellaneous Reactions of CO2 to Form Carbonates 3.12. Transesterification 3.13. Cyclic Carbonic Esters 4. Environmental Protection and Toxicology 5. Quality Specifications 6. Analysis 7. Storage and Transportation 8. Uses 8.1. Direct Uses 8.2. Use for Chemical Synthesis 9. Economic Aspects

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