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Laundry Detergents

Abstract The article contains sections titled: 1. Historical Review 2. Physical Chemistry of the Washing Process 2.1. Introduction to the Washing Process 2.2. Components 2.2.1. Substrates 2.2.2. Washing Liquid/Water 2.2.3. Soils 2.3. Wetting/Adsorption on Surfaces 2.3.1. Wetting 2.3.2. Drainage 2.3.3. Adsorption Layer 2.4. Soil Removal and Stabilization 2.4.1. Builders 2.4.1.1. Overview on Builder Systems 2.4.1.2. Precipitation Builders 2.4.1.3. Complexing Agents 2.4.1.4. Ion Exchangers 2.4.1.5. Cobuilders 2.4.1.6. Soluble Builders 2.4.2. Oily Soil 2.4.3. Particulate Soil 2.4.4. Chemical Reactions 2.4.4.1. Bleachable Stains 2.4.4.2. Enzymatic Soil Removal 2.4.5. Soil‐Repelling Effects 2.5. Formulation 2.5.1. Foam 2.5.2. Microemulsion 2.5.3. Phase Stability 2.5.4. Softeners 2.6. Concluding Remarks 3. Detergent Ingredients 3.1. Surfactants 3.1.1. Anionic Surfactants 3.1.2. Nonionic Surfactants 3.1.2.1. Alcohol Ethoxylates (AE) 3.1.2.2. Alkylphenol Ethoxylates (APE) 3.1.2.3. Fatty Acid Alkanolamides (FAA) 3.1.2.4. Alkylamine Oxides 3.1.2.5. N‐Methylglucamides (NMG) 3.1.2.6. Alkylpolyglycosides (APG) 3.1.3. Cationic Surfactants 3.1.4. Amphoteric Surfactants 3.2. Builders 3.2.1. Alkalies 3.2.2. Complexing Agents 3.2.3. Ion Exchangers 3.2.4. Builder Combinations 3.3. Bleaches 3.3.1. Bleach‐Active Compounds 3.3.2. Bleach Activators 3.3.3. Bleach Catalysts 3.3.4. Bleach Stabilizers 3.4. Further Detergent Ingredients 3.4.1. Enzymes 3.4.2. Soil Antiredeposition Agents, Soil Repellent/Soil Release Agents 3.4.3. Foam Regulators 3.4.4. Corrosion Inhibitors 3.4.5. Fluorescent Whitening Agents 3.4.6. Dye Transfer Inhibitors 3.4.7. Fragrances 3.4.8. Dyes 3.4.9. Fillers and Formulation Aids 4. Laundry Products 4.1. Heavy‐Duty Detergents 4.1.1. Conventional Powder Heavy‐Duty Detergents 4.1.2. Compact and Supercompact Heavy‐Duty Detergents 4.1.3. Extruded Heavy Duty Detergents 4.1.4. Heavy‐Duty Detergent Tablets 4.1.5. Color Heavy‐Duty Detergents 4.1.6. Liquid Heavy‐Duty Detergents 4.2. Specialty Detergents 4.2.1. Powder Specialty Detergents 4.2.2. Liquid Specialty Detergents 4.3. Laundry Aids 4.3.1. Pretreatment Aids 4.3.2. Boosters 4.3.3. Aftertreatment Aids 4.3.3.1. Fabric Softeners 4.3.3.2. Stiffeners 4.3.3.3. Laundry Dryer Aids 4.3.4. Other Laundry Aids 4.3.4.1. Refreshing Products for Dryer Application 4.3.4.2. Odor Removers for Washer Application 5. Industrial and Institutional Detergents 6. Production of Powder Detergents 6.1. Technology Overview 6.2. Manufacturing Processes 6.2.1. Traditional Spray‐Drying Process 6.2.2. Superheated Steam Drying 6.2.3. Nontower Agglomeration Process 6.2.4. Nontower Compound Technology 6.3. Densification Processes 6.3.1. Dry Densification in a Mixer 6.3.2. Dry Densification in a Spheronizer 6.3.3. Dry Densification in a Roller Press 6.3.4. Wet Granulation 6.3.5. Spaghetti Extrusion 6.3.6. Postaddition Process 6.3.7. Dry Densification in a Tablet Press 6.4. Raw Materials 6.4.1. Anionic Surfactants 6.4.2. Nonionic Surfactants 6.4.3. Builders 6.4.4. Peroxygen Bleaches 6.4.5. Enzymes 7. Analysis of the Composition 7.1. Detergent Ingredients: 7.2. Purposes of Detergent Analysis: 7.3. Sample Preparation: 7.4. Analytical Methods 7.4.1. Qualitative Analysis 7.4.2. Sample Preparation 7.4.3. Quantitative Analysis 7.4.4. Separation Methods: 7.4.5. Structure Determination 7.4.6. Determination of Characteristic Values 7.4.7. Analysis Automation: 7.5. Sources of Information: 8. Test Methods for Laundry Detergents 8.1. Laboratory Methods 8.2. Practical Evaluation 8.3. Consumer Tests 9. Economic Aspects 9.1. Detergent Components 9.1.1. Surfactants 9.1.2. Builders 9.2. Laundry Detergents 9.3. Fabric Softeners 9.4. Other Laundry Aids 10. Ecology 10.1. Laundry, Wastewater, and the Environment 10.2. Contribution of Laundry to the Sewage Load 10.3. Detergent Laws 10.3.1. Development of the European Detergent Legislation 10.3.2. Regulatory Limitations on Anionic and Nonionic Surfactants 10.3.3. Primary Biodegradation Test Procedures 10.3.4. Regulation of Maximum Phosphate Content in Detergents 10.4. General Criteria for the Ecological Evaluation of Detergent Chemicals 10.4.1. Concept 10.4.2. Environmental Exposure Assessment 10.4.2.1. Biodegradation 10.4.2.2. Biodegradability Standard Test Methods 10.4.2.3. Supplementary Biodegradation Test Methods 10.4.2.4. Exposure Analysis 10.4.3. Assessment of Environmental Effects 10.4.3.1. Basic Ecotoxicity Tests 10.4.3.2. Subchronic and Chronic Ecotoxicity Tests 10.4.3.3. Biocenotic Ecotoxicity Tests 10.4.3.4. Bioaccumulation 10.4.4. Process of Environmental Risk Assessment 10.5. Ecological Characterization of Main Detergent Ingredients 10.5.1. Surfactants 10.5.1.1. Anionic Surfactants 10.5.1.2. Nonionic Surfactants 10.5.1.3. Cationic Surfactants 10.5.2. Builders 10.5.2.1. Zeolites 10.5.2.2. Polycarboxylates 10.5.2.3. Citrates 10.5.2.4. Sodium Carbonate (Soda Ash) 10.5.2.5. Nitrilotriacetate (NTA) 10.5.3. Bleaching Agents 10.5.3.1. Sodium Perborate 10.5.3.2. Sodium Percarbonate 10.5.3.3. Tetraacetylethylenediamine (TAED) 10.5.4. Auxiliary Agents 10.5.4.1. Phosphonates 10.5.4.2. EDTA 10.5.4.3. Enzymes 10.5.4.4. Optical Brighteners 10.5.4.5. Carboxymethyl Cellulose 10.5.4.6. Dye Transfer Inhibitors 10.5.4.7. Fragrances 10.5.4.8. Foam Regulators 10.5.4.9. Soil Repellents 10.5.4.10. Dyes 10.5.4.11. Sodium Sulfate 11. Toxicology 11.1. Detergent Ingredients 11.1.1. Surfactants 11.1.2. Builders 11.1.3. Bleach‐Active Compounds 11.1.4. Auxiliary Agents 11.2. Finished Detergents 11.3. Conclusions 12. Textiles 13. Washing Machines and Wash Programs (Cycles) 13.1. Household Washing Machines 13.1.1. Classification 13.1.2. Operational Parameters 13.1.3. Wash Programs 13.1.3.1. Japanese Washing Machines and Washing Conditions 13.1.3.2. North American Washing Machines and Washing Conditions 13.1.3.3. European Washing Machines and Washing Conditions 13.1.4. Energy and Water Consumption 13.1.5. Construction Materials Used in Washing Machines 13.1.6. The Market for Washing Machines 13.2. Laundry Dryers 13.3. Washing Machines for Institutional Use 13.3.1. Batch‐Type Machines 13.3.2. Continuous Batch Washers

Laundry Detergents

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