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Textile Dyeing

Abstract The article contains sections titled: 1. History, Economic Importance 1.1. Historical Dyeing Methods 1.2. Economic Importance of Textile Dyeing 2. Dyeing Technology 2.1. General 2.1.1. History 2.1.2. The Field of Dyeing Technology 2.1.3. Fundamental Principles of Dyeing 2.1.3.1. Dyeing Systems 2.1.3.2. Phases of Exhaustion Dyeing 2.1.3.3. Dyeing Phase (Dyeing Kinetics) 2.1.3.4. Equilibrium Phase 2.1.3.5. Dye Fixation, Improvement of Colorfastness 2.1.3.6. Sources of Further Process Data 2.2. Batchwise Dyeing (Bath Dyeing) 2.2.1. Fundamental Principles and Equipment 2.2.2. Theoretical and Technical Fundamental Principles 2.2.3. Circulating Machines (Stationary Goods, Circulating Liquor) 2.2.3.1. Systems and Functions 2.2.3.2. Loose Stock Dyeing Machines 2.2.3.3. Package Dyeing Machines (Cross‐Wound Packages) 2.2.3.4. Hank Dyeing Machines 2.2.3.5. Beam Dyeing 2.2.4. Circulating‐Goods Machines with Textile Storage (Winch Type) 2.2.4.1. System and Functions 2.2.4.2. The Winch Beck 2.2.4.3. Jet Dyeing Machines 2.2.4.4. Overflow Dyeing Machines 2.2.4.5. The Air Jet (“Airflow”) Dyeing Machine 2.2.5. The Dyeing Jigger 2.2.5.1. Normal (Direct) Jig Dyeing 2.2.5.2. Pad Jig Process 2.2.6. Special Bath Dyeing Equipment 2.2.6.1. Star‐Shaped Dyeing Frames 2.2.6.2. Machines for Dyeing Hanks of Yarn 2.2.6.3. Paddle Dyeing Machine 2.2.6.4. Rotary Dyeing Machine 2.2.6.5. Cabinet Dyeing 2.2.6.6. Hosiery Dyeing Machines 2.2.7. Automatic Control of Bath Dyeing 2.2.7.1. Aims 2.2.7.2. Functions of Automatic Control 2.2.7.3. Equipment Requirements 2.3. Continuous and Semicontinuous Dyeing 2.3.1. The Principal Stages of Continuous Dyeing 2.3.1.1. Dye Pickup 2.3.1.2. Intermediate Drying 2.3.1.3. Dye Fixation 2.3.1.4. Aftertreatment of the Dyed Fabric (Finishing) 2.3.2. Dyeing Plants 2.3.3. Continuous Dyeing of Yarn and Fiber 2.3.4. Automatic Operation of Continuous Dyeing Plants 2.3.4.1. Important Process Stages and their Automation 2.3.4.2. Technology of Automation 2.4. Laboratory Dyeing Techniques 2.4.1. Objectives 2.4.2. Laboratory Dyeing 2.4.2.1. Typical Laboratory Equipment 2.4.2.2. Small‐Scale Production Equipment 2.4.3. Laboratory Dyeing Technology 2.5. Techniques of Dispensing Products used in Dyeing 2.5.1. Dispensing of Dyes 2.5.2. Dispensing of Dye Auxiliaries 2.5.3. Dispensing of Chemicals 2.5.4. Preparation of the Initial Liquor Charge and its Replenishment 2.5.4.1. Batch Dyeing 2.5.4.2. Continuous Dyeing 2.6. Colorimetry 2.6.1. Measuring Instruments 2.6.2. Methods of Expressing Colorimetric Results 2.6.3. Developments in Colorimetry 3. Physical Properties of Textiles Important for Dyeing 3.1. Classification of Textile Properties 3.2. Fibers 3.3. Yarns 3.4. Fabrics 3.5. Makeup of Textiles for Dyeing 4. Dyeing of Cellulose Fibers 4.1. Dyeing with Reactive Dyes 4.1.1. Fundamentals 4.1.2. Dyeing Techniques 4.1.3. Special Processes and Development Trends 4.2. Dyeing with Direct Dyes 4.2.1. Applications and Properties 4.2.2. Dyeing Principle 4.2.3. Pretreatment of Substrates 4.2.4. Dyeing Parameters 4.2.5. Dyeing Techniques 4.2.6. Special Processes 4.2.7. Aftertreatment 4.3. Dyeing with Anthraquinone Vat Dyes 4.3.1. Chemistry of Vat Dyes 4.3.2. Vatting 4.3.3. Dye Absorption in the Exhaustion Process 4.3.4. Oxidation 4.3.5. Aftertreatment (“Soaping”) 4.3.6. Dyeing Techniques 4.4. Dyeing with Indigo 4.4.1. Chemistry and Historical Development 4.4.2. Dyeing Technique 4.5. Dyeing with Sulfur Dyes 4.5.1. Types and Mode of Reaction 4.5.2. Additives to the Dye Bath 4.5.3. Dyeing 4.5.4. Dyeing Techniques 4.5.5. Combination with Other Dye Groups 4.5.6. Wastewater 4.6. Dyeing with Naphtol AS Dyes 4.7. Dyeing with Pigments 4.8. Other Dyeing Methods 4.8.1. Dyeing with Leuco Esters of Vat Dyes 4.8.2. Dyeing with Mordant Dyes 4.8.3. Dyeing with Acid Dyes 4.8.4. Dyeing with Basic Dyes 4.8.5. Dyeing with Mineral Dyes 4.8.6. Dyeing with Oxidation Dyes 4.8.7. Dyeing with Phthalogen Dyes 4.8.8. Dyeing with Coupling and DiazotizationDyes 4.9. Other Plant Fibers 5. Dyeing of Wool and Silk 5.1. Dyeing of Wool 5.1.1. Principles 5.1.2. Dye Classes and Dyeing Processes 5.1.2.1. Acid Dyes 5.1.2.2. Chrome Dyes 5.1.2.3. 1 : 1 Metal‐Complex Dyes 5.1.2.4. 1 : 2 Metal‐Complex Dyes 5.1.2.5. Reactive Dyes () 5.1.2.6. Vat Dyes, Leuco Esters of Vat Dyes 5.1.3. Technology of Dyeing 5.1.4. Properties of Dyeings 5.1.5. Dyeing of Wool ‐ Polyamide Blends 5.2. Dyeing of Silk 5.2.1. Fiber Structure and Dyeing Behavior 5.2.2. Classes of Dyes 5.2.3. Technology of Dyeing 6. Dyeing of Polyamide Fibers 6.1. Chemical Structure 6.2. Supermolecular Structure 6.3. Interactions Between Dye and Fiber 6.4. Dyes 6.4.1. Disperse Dyes 6.4.2. Acid Dyes 6.4.3. 1 : 2 Metal‐Complex Dyes 6.4.4. Reactive Dyes 6.5. Technology 6.6. Properties of Dyed Materials 6.7. Selection of Dyes 6.8. Toxicological and Physiological Aspects 7. Dyeing of Polyester Fibers 7.1. General 7.1.1. Dyeing in Aqueous Liquor 7.1.2. Thermosol Process 7.2. Dyeing Processes for Polyester Fibers 7.2.1. Requirements to Be Met by Dyes and Auxiliaries 7.2.2. Dyeing from Aqueous Dye Baths 7.2.3. Special Dyeing Processes 7.2.4. Continuous and Semicontinuous Dyeing Processes 7.2.5. Dyeing of Microfibers 7.2.6. Dyeing of Modified Polyester Fibers 7.3. Aftertreatment 8. Dyeing of Cellulose Acetate 8.1. Dyeing Processes for Cellulose Acetate 8.2. Dyeing Processes for Cellulose Triacetate 8.3. Aftertreatment, S‐Finish 9. Dyeing of Acrylic (Polyacrylonitrile and Modacrylic) Fibers 9.1. Economic Aspects 9.2. Principles 9.2.1. Disperse Dyes 9.2.2. Cationic Dyes 9.3. Exhaustion Process 9.4. Dyeing of Special Fiber Types According to the Exhaustion Process 9.5. Continuous Processes 10. Dyeing of Other Synthetic Fibers 10.1. Poly(Vinyl Chloride) Fibers 10.2. Elastomeric Fibers 10.3. Polypropylene Fibers 10.4. Poly(Vinyl Alcohol) (PVA) Fibers 10.5. Aramid Fibers 11. Dyeing of Fiber Blends 11.1. Polyester ‐ Cellulose Blends 11.1.1. General Finishing Information 11.1.2. Dyeing Processes 11.1.2.1. Dyeing with Disperse and Vat Dyes or Appropriate Mixed Dyes 11.1.2.2. Dyeing with Disperse and Reactive Dyes 11.1.2.3. Dyeing of the Cellulose Component with Other Dyes 11.2. Polyester ‐ Wool Blends 11.2.1. Dyes 11.2.2. Dyeing Processes 11.2.3. Auxiliaries 11.3. Polyamide ‐ Cellulose Blends 11.4. Polyacrylonitrile ‐ Cellulose Blends 11.5. Polyacrylonitrile ‐ Wool Blends 11.6. Blends of Synthetic Fibers 12. Characterization of Textile Dyes 13. Testing of Colorfastness 13.1. Organization 13.2. Standard Test Methods 13.2.1. Group A: General Principles 13.2.2. Group B: Colour Fastness to Light and Weathering 13.2.3. Group C: Colour Fastness to Washing and Laundering 13.2.4. Group D: Colour Fastness to Dry Cleaning 13.2.5. Group E: Colour Fastness to Aqueous Agencies 13.2.6. Group G: Colour Fastness to Atmospheric Contaminants 13.2.7. Group J: Measurement of Colour and Colour Differences 13.2.8. Group N: Colour Fastness to Bleaching Agencies 13.2.9. Group P: Colour Fastness to Heat Treatments 13.2.10. Group S: Colour Fastness to Vulcanization 13.2.11. Group X: Colour Fastness to Miscellaneous Agencies 13.2.12. Group Z: Colourant Characteristics 14. Legal Aspects, Toxicology, and Ecology 14.1. Water Consumption 14.2. Legal Regulations 14.3. Components of Textile Wastewater 14.4. Reduction of Wastewater Load by Special Preventive Measures 14.5. Special Methods of Wastewater Treatment 14.6. Recycling of Water and Valuable Substances 14.7. Ecotoxicology of Textile Dyes

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