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Glycosaminoglycan and Proteoglycan Biotherapeutics in Articular Cartilage Protection and Repair Strategies: Novel Approaches to Visco‐supplementation in Orthobiologics

Abstract The aim of this study is to review developments in glycosaminoglycan and proteoglycan research relevant to cartilage repair biology and in particular the treatment of osteoarthritis (OA). Glycosaminoglycans decorate a diverse range of extracellular matrix and cell associated proteoglycans conveying structural organization and physico-chemical properties to tissues. They play key roles mediating cellular interactions with bioactive growth factors, cytokines, and morphogenetic proteins, and structural fibrillar collagens, cell interactive and extracellular matrix proteoglycans, and glycoproteins which define tissue function. Proteoglycan degradation detrimentally affects tissue functional properties. Therapeutic strategies have been developed to counter these degenerative changes. Neo-proteoglycans prepared from chondroitin sulfate or hyaluronan and hyaluronan or collagen-binding peptides emulate the interactive, water imbibing, weight bearing, and surface lubricative properties of native proteoglycans. Many neo-proteoglycans outperform native proteoglycans in terms of water imbibition, matrix stabilization, and resistance to proteolytic degradation. The biospecificity of recombinant proteoglycans however, provides precise attachment to native target molecules. Visco-supplements augmented with growth factors/therapeutic cells, hyaluronan, and lubricin (orthobiologicals) have the capacity to lubricate and protect cartilage, control inflammation, and promote cartilage repair and regeneration of early cartilage lesions and may represent a more effective therapeutic approach to the treatment of mild to moderate OA and deserve further study.

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