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Magnetic Nanoparticle Composites: Synergistic Effects and Applications

Abstract Composite materials are made from two or more constituent materials with distinct physical or chemical properties that, when combined, produce a material with characteristics which are at least to some degree different from its individual components. Nanocomposite materials are composed of different materials of which at least one has nanoscale dimensions. Common types of nanocomposites consist of a combination of two different elements, with a nanoparticle that is linked to, or surrounded by, another organic or inorganic material, for example in a core-shell or heterostructure configuration. A general family of nanoparticle composites concerns the coating of a nanoscale material by a polymer, SiO2 or carbon. Other materials, such as graphene or graphene oxide (GO), are used as supports forming composites when nanoscale materials are deposited onto them. In this Review we focus on magnetic nanocomposites, describing their synthetic methods, physical properties and applications. Several types of nanocomposites are presented, according to their composition, morphology or surface functionalization. Their applications are largely due to the synergistic effects that appear thanks to the co-existence of two different materials and to their interface, resulting in properties often better than those of their single-phase components. Applications discussed concern magnetically separable catalysts, water treatment, diagnostics-sensing and biomedicine.

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