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Secondary Metabolites Derived from Fatty Acids and Carbohydrates
Seeds of species from this family contain 15–40% fatty oil. Linoleic acid [18:2 (n-6)] was found to be usually the major fatty acid component in genera such as Atropa, Datura, Hyoscyamus, Physalis, and Solanum (Hegnauer 1973 and references therein). In a comprehensive study the fatty acid composition of the seeds of 62 Nicotiana spp. (content: 25–40% on a dry weight basis) and of the leaves of 56 Nicotiana spp. (2.1–4.4%) were presented (Koiwai et al. 1983). α-Linolenic acid [18:3 (n-3)], the most abundant plant fatty acid, also was the dominant fatty acid in the leaves of all Nicotiana species (50–63%) whereas it predominated at least in the seeds of most species. Another report has been published with detailed information on the fatty acid composition of the seed oil of Capsicum annuum L. (Bekker et al. 2001). The fatty acid composition of the seed oils was also reported from, e.g, Bouchetia anomala (Miers) Britton & Rusby (Maestri and Guzman 1991), Grabowskia duplicata Arnott (Maestri et al. 1992), and Phrodus microphyllus (Miers) Miers (Maestri et al. 1994). Complete triglyceride types of seed oils from certain cultivated plants of the Solanaceae such as Physalis pubescens L., P. philadelphica Lam. sub nom. P. ixocarpa Brot., C. annuum, Solanum lycopersicum L. sub nom. Lycopersicon esculentum Mill., S. melongena L., and S. nigrum L. have been reported (Deineka and Deineka 2004).