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Convolutional support vector machines for speech recognition

Convolutional neural networks (CNNs) have demonstrated the state-of-the-art performances on automatic speech recognition. Softmax activation function for prediction and minimizing the cross-entropy loss is employed by most of the CNNs. This paper proposes a new deep architecture in which two heterogeneous classification techniques named as CNN and support vector machines (SVMs) are combined together. In this proposed model, features are learned using convolution layer and classified by SVMs. The last layer of CNN i.e. softmax layer is replaced by SVMs to efficiently deal with high dimensional features. This model should be interpreted as a special form of structured SVM and named as convolutional support vector machine (CSVM). Instead of training each component separately, the parameters of CNN and SVMs are jointly trained using frame level max-margin, sequence level max-margin, and state-level minimum Bayes risk criterion. The performance of CSVM is checked on TIMIT and Wall Street Journal datasets for phone recognition. By incorporating the features of both CNN and SVMs, CSVM improves the result by 13.33% and 2.31% over baseline CNN and segmental recurrent neural networks respectively.


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