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Cyberphysical systems in the smart city: challenges and future trends for strategic research
Modern cities today compete with each other to be smarter, be more sustainable with high-quality living, acquire talents, and provide jobs. This digital transformation through agile drivers will help address the increasing challenges of urbanization in a couple of decades. The cyberphysical system (CPS) is becoming pervasive in every aspect of smart city daily life and can be considered as one of the four fundamental conceptual approaches of the fourth generation industrial revolution (Industry 4.0). CPS is used to describe the next generation of a diverse spectrum of complicated, multidisciplinary, physically comprehending engineered systems that integrate embedded cyber aspects into the physical world. It implants computation technologies, communication control, the convergence of information, and physical processes together with strategic importance internationally. CPS is still a vast research area. As a result, it opens venues for applications across multiple scales. This paper presents an in-depth survey of the related works, focusing on the design to understand CPS more precisely, and how it relates to different research fields, current concepts, and real-life applications. Further, it enumerates an extensive set of CPS challenges and opportunities, introducing visionary ideas, research strategies, and future trends expected by 2030 for critical future-oriented technological solutions, like cloud computing, Internet of Things, and big data. These technological solutions are to play a critical role in CPS research and have significant impacts on the smart city.