Effects of a cognitive-behavioral pain-management program
A cognitive behavioral multidisciplinary pain management program was evaluated in two separate outcome studies; one controlled study (study I) and one study conducted on a consecutive sample with a long-term follow-up (study II). The 4-week inpatient treatment program included education sessions, goal setting, graded activity training, pacing, applied relaxation, cognitive techniques, social skills training, drug reduction methods, contingency management of pain behaviors, and planning of work return. The outcome of study I showed significant between-group differences in favor of the treatment group on measures of occupational training at 1-month follow-up, activity level in the sparetime at post-treatment and at follow-up, and decreased catastrophizing and pain behaviors at post-treatment. In study II significant improvements over time were found on measures of sick leave, pain intensity, pain interference, life control, affective distress, activity level in the sparetime, physical fitness and use of analgetics at 2-month follow-up and at 1-year follow-up. The results of the two outcome studies reported show that cognitive behavioral multidisciplinary pain management programs can successfully be applied to Swedish musculoskeletal pain patients.