Overview of wind power intermittency: Impacts, measurements, and mitigation solutions
Environmental issues and the prospect of an energy crisis inspire humans to exploit wind power. However, with the increase of wind power penetration level, operating power systems securely and reliably is a serious challenge due to the inherent nature of wind power intermittency. Wind power intermittency has been the major barrier for large scale wind power integration. This paper reviews past research on wind power intermittency, including its impacts on power system, how it is measured, and mitigation solutions. It has been found that as wind power integration increase, the system reverses and costs consequently increase, while the system reliability and CO 2 reductions decrease. In order to mitigate wind power intermittency, studies on intermittency measurements and mitigation solutions are necessary. Existing measurements of wind power intermittency are summarized firstly. Considering the limitations of existing methods, new definitions and metrics are proposed based on our study. Then, various wind power intermittency mitigation solutions are comprehensively reviewed, including wind farms, generation-side, demand-side and energy storage. In the final part of this paper, the further work on wind power intermittency is discussed in detail. In summary, wind power intermittency can be effectively mitigated using various technological and managerial approaches based on an in-depth understanding of intermittency.