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Deregulated mitochondrial microRNAs in Alzheimer's disease: Focus on synapse and mitochondria

Highlights•Mitochondrial dysfunction is one of the major hallmarks of AD.•Mitochondrial miRNAs are crucial for mitochondrial functions in neurotransmission at synapse.•Mitochondria works differently with age and gender in AD.•Synapse numbers varies with age and gender in AD.•Mitochondrial miRNAs are potential targets for mitochondria and synapses in AD.AbstractAlzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia and is currently one of the biggest public health concerns in the world. Mitochondrial dysfunction in neurons is one of the major hallmarks of AD. Emerging evidence suggests that mitochondrial miRNAs potentially play important roles in the mitochondrial dysfunctions, focusing on synapse in AD progression. In this meta-analysis paper, a comprehensive literature review was conducted to identify and discuss the (1) role of mitochondrial miRNAs that regulate mitochondrial and synaptic functions; (2) the role of various factors such as mitochondrial dynamics, biogenesis, calcium signaling, biological sex, and aging on synapse and mitochondrial function; (3) how synapse damage and mitochondrial dysfunctions contribute to AD; (4) the structure and function of synapse and mitochondria in the disease process; (5) latest research developments in synapse and mitochondria in healthy and disease states; and (6) therapeutic strategies that improve synaptic and mitochondrial functions in AD. Specifically, we discussed how differences in the expression of mitochondrial miRNAs affect ATP production, oxidative stress, mitophagy, bioenergetics, mitochondrial dynamics, synaptic activity, synaptic plasticity, neurotransmission, and synaptotoxicity in neurons observed during AD. However, more research is needed to confirm the locations and roles of individual mitochondrial miRNAs in the development of AD.

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