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Biomarkers used in Alzheimer’s disease diagnosis, treatment, and prevention

Highlights•This article reviews the development, current stage and future directions of substantial biomarkers in AD diagnosis, treatment and prevention.•This work encompasses multiple subdisciplines in the field of neuroscience.•The use of biomarker-based early diagnosis of AD cases can offer valuable opportunities for establishing a preventive therapy in the near future.AbstractAlzheimer’s disease (AD), being the number one in terms of dementia burden, is an insidious age-related neurodegenerative disease and is presently considered a global public health threat. Its main histological hallmarks are the Aβ senile plaques and the P-tau neurofibrillary tangles, while clinically it is marked by a progressive cognitive decline that reflects the underlying synaptic loss and neurodegeneration. Many of the drug therapies targeting the two pathological hallmarks namely Aβ and P-tau have been proven futile. This is probably attributed to the initiation of therapy at a stage where cognitive alterations are already obvious. In other words, the underlying neuropathological changes are at a stage where these drugs lack any therapeutic value in reversing the damage. Therefore, there is an urgent need to start treatment in the very early stage where these changes can be reversed, and hence, early diagnosis is of primordial importance. To this aim, the use of robust and informative biomarkers that could provide accurate diagnosis preferably at an earlier phase of the disease is of the essence. To date, several biomarkers have been established that, to a different extent, allow researchers and clinicians to evaluate, diagnose, and more specially exclude other related pathologies. In this study, we extensively reviewed data on the currently explored biomarkers in terms of AD pathology-specific and non-specific biomarkers and highlighted the recent developments in the diagnostic and theragnostic domains. In the end, we have presented a separate elaboration on aspects of future perspectives and concluding remarks.

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