Slow oscillatory transcranial direct current stimulation (so-tDCS) during slow wave sleep has no effects on declarative memory in healthy young subjects
Highlights•So-tDCS has no effect on sleep-dependent memory consolidation, sleep stages, sleep EEG-power, and sleep spindle densities.•In the procedural task, performances showed an overnight increased independent of stimulation.•Word-pair retention decreased independent of stimulation.•Re-encoding opportunities seem to be critical for learning and retrieval performance in declarative memory tasks.•The non-significant results may be explained by a lack of entrainment.AbstractBackgroundThe manipulation of specific brain oscillations by applying transcranial electrical stimulation techniques in order to enhance memory processes during sleep has become an intriguing field of research. A seminal study found a positive effect of slow-oscillatory transcranial direct current stimulation (so-tDCS) on sleep-dependent consolidation of declarative memories. Since then several studies have tried to replicate this result with inconsistent findings.Objective/HypothesisThis study aimed to reexamine effects of so-tDCS on declarative memory observed in young participants based on a previously described stimulation protocol used in elderly subjects.Methods23 healthy participants (mean ± SD: 23.2 ± 1.9 years; 13 women) completed a word-pair test and a sequential finger tapping test before and after sleep. Participants received anodal so-tDCS bifrontaly at a frequency of 0.75 Hz or sham stimulation during NREM sleep N2, following a double-blind, placebo controlled, counterbalanced, randomized crossover design. Data were analyzed with respect to possible effects of stimulation on memory performances, sleep staging, spindle densities and EEG power in eight frequency bands.ResultsStimulation had no significant effect on sleep dependent memory consolidation or on sleep macro- and microstructure. Independent of stimulation, procedural memory performances increased and declarative memory performances decreased overnight. This decline was less pronounced when participants had more than one learning opportunity. Fast parietal but not slow frontal spindle densities diminished from baseline to stimulation-free intervals under both stimulation conditions.ConclusionThe present study could not reproduce the results of the seminal study in young subjects, but it is consistent with results observed in elderly subjects using the same protocol. Irrespective of stimulation, re-encoding opportunities in the word-pair test had an impact on memory strength and retrieval performance.
تحریک کند جریان مستقیم transcranial جریان مستقیم (به اصطلاح -)در طول خواب موج آهسته تاثیری بر حافظه اخباری در موضوعات جوان سالم ندارد.