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Phenylene-linked tetrapyrrole arrays containing free base and diverse metal chelate forms – Versatile synthetic architectures for catalysis and artificial photosynthesis

Highlights•Phenylene linkers between tetrapyrrole macrocycles afford defined 3-D architectures.•Phenylene linkers afford rapid rates of energy-, electron-, and hole-transfer processes.•Eight synthetic routes enable construction of phenylene linkers with porphyrins.•Two of the routes are suitable for (bacterio)chlorins for red and NIR applications.•Diverse arrays of metallotetrapyrroles (Mg, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, etc.) are accessible.AbstractTetrapyrrole macrocycles are central to photosynthesis yet a single macrocycle does not carry out photosynthesis; rather, assemblies of tetrapyrrole macrocycles work in concert in antenna complexes, reaction centers, and electron-transport chains to harvest sunlight, funnel excited-state energy and separate charge for biological use. A longstanding theme in artificial photosynthesis has been to construct covalently linked “arrays” of metalated and free base tetrapyrrole macrocycles for fundamental studies of such processes, which entail excited-state and ground-state interactions. Among linkers in arrays chemistry, the 1,2-, 1,3-, or 1,4-disubstituted phenylene unit has proved very attractive owing to the resulting short distance, defined architecture, and appropriate extent of electronic coupling of adjacent macrocycles to give rapid electron and/or energy transfer while largely retaining desired spectral features. Eight distinct strategies to construct phenylene-linked tetrapyrrole arrays are identified in a review with comprehensive coverage since inception in the early 1970s through mid-year 2021. The arrays predominantly incorporate porphyrins with very few chlorins and bacteriochlorins, reflecting historic availability of synthetic methods for macrocycle formation. Of the eight strategies, only two appear applicable to (bacterio)chlorins. While studies in artificial photosynthesis have largely fueled this field, applications in catalysis have also been examined. Altogether >400 arrays are covered. The review delves into synthesis and molecular design, sketches photophysical properties, and suggests unrealized opportunities in arrays chemistry.Graphical abstractDownload : Download high-res image (48KB)Download : Download full-size image


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