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Bioethanol production from waste lignocelluloses: A review on microbial degradation potential

Highlights•Waste lignocellulose-energy source.•Microbial hydrolysis.•Enzyme potential.AbstractTremendous explosion of population has led to about 200% increment of total energy consumptions in last twenty-five years. Apart from conventional fossil fuel as limited energy source, alternative non-conventional sources are being explored worldwide to cater the energy requirement. Lignocellulosic biomass conversion for biofuel production is an important alternative energy source due to its abundance in nature and creating less harmful impacts on the environment in comparison to the coal or petroleum-based sources. However, lignocellulose biopolymer, the building block of plants, is a recalcitrant substance and difficult to break into desirable products. Commonly used chemical and physical methods for pretreating the substrate are having several limitations. Whereas, utilizing microbial potential to hydrolyse the biomass is an interesting area of research. Because of the complexity of substrate, several enzymes are required that can act synergistically to hydrolyse the biopolymer producing components like bioethanol or other energy substances. Exploring a range of microorganisms, like bacteria, fungi, yeast etc. that utilizes lignocelluloses for their energy through enzymatic breaking down the biomass, is one of the options. Scientists are working upon designing organisms through genetic engineering tools to integrate desired enzymes into a single organism (like bacterial cell). Studies on designer cellulosomes and bacteria consortia development relating consolidated bioprocessing are exciting to overcome the issue of appropriate lignocellulose digestions. This review encompasses up to date information on recent developments for effective microbial degradation processes of lignocelluloses for improved utilization to produce biofuel (bioethanol in particular) from the most plentiful substances of our planet.

تولید Bioethanol از پسماند زباله: بررسی پتانسیل تخریب میکروبی

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