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The tale of a versatile enzyme: Alpha-amylase evolution, structure, and potential biotechnological applications for the bioremediation of n-alkanes

Highlights•We critically review the role of α-amylase in the bioremediation of n-alkanes.•Evolutionary aspects of α-amylase adaptation to extreme environments is discussed.•Key structural residues for biotechnological applications of α-amylase are listed.•Specific properties of α-amylases from almost 400 organisms are provided.•Advantages and disadvantages of α-amylase in specific conditions are analyzed.AbstractAs the primary source of a wide range of industrial products, the study of petroleum-derived compounds is of pivotal importance. However, the process of oil extraction and refinement is among the most environmentally hazardous practices, impacting almost all levels of the ecological chain. So far, the most appropriate strategy to overcome such an issue is through bioremediation, which revolves around the employment of different microorganisms to degrade hazardous compounds, generating less environmental impact and lower monetary costs. In this sense, a myriad of organisms and enzymes are considered possible candidates for the bioremediation process. Amidst the potential candidates is α-amylase, an evolutionary conserved starch-degrading enzyme. Notably, α-amylase was not only seen to degrade n-alkanes, a subclass of alkanes considered the most abundant petroleum-derived compounds but also low-density polyethylene, a dangerous pollutant produced from petroleum. Thus, due to its high conservation in both eukaryotic and prokaryotic lineages, in addition to the capability to degrade different types of hazardous compounds, the study of α-amylase becomes a rising interest. Nevertheless, there are no studies that review all biotechnological applications of α-amylase for bioremediation. In this work, we critically review the potential biotechnological applications of α-amylase, focusing on the biodegradation of petroleum-derived compounds. Evolutionary aspects are discussed, as well for all structural information and all features that could impact on the employment of this protein in the biotechnological industry, such as pH, temperature, and medium conditions. New perspectives and critical assessments are conducted regarding the application of α-amylase in the bioremediation of n-alkanes.

داستان یک آنزیم چند منظوره: تکامل آلفا - amylase، ساختار و کاربردهای بالقوه biotechnological برای the - آلکان ها

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