Victimization and students’ psychological well-being: The mediating roles of hope and school connectedness
Highlights•Bullying victimization is negatively related to students’ life satisfaction.•Bullying victimization is positively related to students’ emotional difficulties.•Hope mediates the relation between victimization and psychological well-being.•School connectedness mediates effect of victimization on psychological well-being.AbstractA plethora of evidence supports the negative effects of bullying victimization on students’ adjustment. Grounded in the Social and Psychological Capital Framework (Cassidy, McLaughlin, & McDowell, 2014), the authors investigated the effects of victimization on students’ psychological well-being assessed through life satisfaction and emotional difficulties via hope and school connectedness. Based on a sample of 1060 students from grades 3–6, results provided support for a negative relation between victimization and life satisfaction; and a positive relation between victimization and emotional difficulties. The results further supported the hypotheses of hope and school connectedness as mediators for the relations between victimization and life satisfaction and emotional difficulties. The significant mediation model reinforced hope and school connectedness as protective factors against bullying victimization and further advanced the Social and Psychological Capital Framework to be applied to school bullying. Results shed light on practical implications for victimization interventions, considering psychological well-being outcomes and incorporation of hope and school connectedness. Implications for future research were also discussed.