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Developing a comprehensive conceptual framework for city branding based on urban planning theory: Meta-synthesis of the literature (1990–2020)

Highlights•According to urban planning theory, city branding is an ideological issue with formal and informal dimensions.•Transnational, political, and social environments are the ideological grounds constructing the city branding norms.•Ideology leverages the power to institutionalize a hegemony in the planning and implementation fields of city branding.•The hegemony can be consolidated by legitimizing the policies that influence the city branding rationality and process.•Social feedback refers to the degree of alignment of citizens with the city branding ideological project.AbstractEven though city branding has recently been considered an urban policy, it remains a research area theoretically detached from urban planning theory and ethics. On this issue, there is still no theoretical link between the ideological and instrumental aspects, leading to a gap between theory and practice. Hence, this paper aimed to contribute to the academic discussion on city branding by extracting a comprehensive framework concerning both formal (instrumental and procedural) and informal (ideological and normative) dimensions. To this end, 534 scientific sources have been studied through a systematic review process, and 380 of them were analyzed using a meta-synthesis method. The findings indicated that city branding based on urban planning includes five categories: (1) the environments involving the planning system (22.5%), (2) ideological and policymaking field (22.2), (3) the field of planning (27.1%), (4) the field of implementation (6.2%), and (5) social feedback (22%). This framework illustrated that city branding is an ideological issue interlinked with different environments and fields institutionalizing a hegemonic ideology formally and informally.


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