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Network biology and artificial intelligence drive the understanding of the multidrug resistance phenotype in cancer

Globally with over 10 million deaths per year, cancer is the most transversal disease across countries, cultures, and ethnicities, affecting both developed and developing regions. Tumorigenesis is dynamically altered by distinct events and can be lethal when untreated. Despite the innovative therapeutics available, multidrug resistance (MDR) to chemotherapy remains the major hindrance to the success of cancer therapy. The multiple mechanisms by which cancer cells evade cell death are diverse, indicating that MDR involves complex interconnected biological networks.Molecular profiling is currently able to stratify cancer into its distinct subtypes and help identify the best therapeutics, leading to “translational systems medicine”. Highly specialized methodologies are generating a large amount of “omics” data – including epigenetics, genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics, as well as pharmacogenomics. Many of the resulting databases store data in non-standard formats, which need to be converted, interpreted, and merged into readable formats. The latest development of artificial intelligence (AI) methodologies and tools, coupled with advancements in large-scale data management and powerful graphic processing computing units, potentiate the integration of these large data sources into relevant biological networks, which will enhance our understanding of cancer MDR.In this review, we revisit common MDR mechanisms and compile a list of the most relevant “omics” public databases. We highlight examples of AI methods that are now decisively contributing to clear advances in cancer research, such as identification of new drugs from large databases and prediction of relevant drug, target, and system properties. An overview of several freely available “ready-to-use” algorithms is also provided. The described molecular scale AI algorithms and tools will undoubtedly guide important improvements in efficiency and efficacy of traditional methods of cancer diagnostics and treatment.

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