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Aging of the cells: Insight into cellular senescence and detection Methods

Cellular theory of aging states that human aging is the result of cellular aging, in which an increasing proportion of cells reach senescence. Senescence, from the Latin word senex, means “growing old,” is an irreversible growth arrest which occurs in response to damaging stimuli, such as DNA damage, telomere shortening, telomere dysfunction and oncogenic stress leading to suppression of potentially dysfunctional, transformed, or aged cells. Cellular senescence is characterized by irreversible cell cycle arrest, flattened and enlarged morphology, resistance to apoptosis, alteration in gene expression and chromatin structure, expression of senescence associated- β-galactosidase (SA-β-gal) and acquisition of senescence associated secretory phenotype (SASP). In this review paper, different types of cellular senescence including replicative senescence (RS) which occurs due to telomere shortening and stress induced premature senescence (SIPS) which occurs in response to different types of stress in cells, are discussed. Biomarkers of cellular senescence and senescent assays including BrdU incorporation assay, senescence associated- β-galactosidase (SA-β-gal) and senescence-associated heterochromatin foci assays to detect senescent cells are also addressed.

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