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Cadmium pollution of soil-rice ecosystems in rice cultivation dominated regions in China: A review

Highlights•We explored Cd pollution of soil-rice ecosystems in China on the national scale.•Cd in soils and grains in Hunan (China) are significantly higher than in other regions.•The concentration of Cd in paddy soil and grain have increasing trend.•Cd pollution in paddy soil mainly derived from mining activity and excessive phosphate fertilizer.AbstractCd accumulation in paddy soils and its subsequent transfer to the food chain are widespread environmental issues, which has been extensively investigated in China. However, most studies focused on regional scales and these results may not be applicable to present the Cd contamination status in soil-rice ecosystems at a national scale. Therefore, based on collected data from China’s rice cultivation dominated regions, this study provides the Cd pollution level of paddy soils and rice grains in China. Results indicates that the Yangtze River basin, especially Hunan, required more attention due to the elevated Cd concentrations in soil-rice ecosystems. Moreover, this review summarizes the significant natural and anthropogenic sources, transport and accumulation mechanism as well as the influencing factors of Cd in soil-rice ecosystems. The wide occurrence of Cd contamination in paddy soils derived primarily from mining activities, intensive application of phosphates fertilizers and e-waste. Physicochemical characteristics of soil, soil microorganisms, temperature as well as the physiological features of rice plants all contribute to Cd accumulation in rice grains, which can be controlled to mitigate Cd accumulation in rice grains. This review will provide a scientific reference for Cd pollution control and management with respect to paddy field ecosystems in China and other countries.Graphical abstractDownload : Download high-res image (190KB)Download : Download full-size image


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