Immunostimulatory and antiangiogenic activities of low molecular weight hyaluronic acid
Highlights•LMWHA showed strong immunostimulatory activities in vitro cell models.•LMWHA raised the indices of spleen and thymus in immunosuppressed mice.•LMWHA increased the lysozyme activity and swelling rate of earlap in vivo.•LMWHA exhibited more significant antiangiogenesis activity in a CAM assay.AbstractThe immunostimulatory activities of two low molecular weight hyaluronic acids (LMWHA-1 and LMWHA-2 with MW of 1.45 × 105 and 4.52 × 104 Da, respectively) and HA (MW, 1.05 × 106 Da) were evaluated by using in vitro cell models and in vivo animal models, and their effects on angiogenesis were measured in vivo by using the chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay. The results demonstrated that LMWHA-1, LMWHA-2 and HA could promote the splenocyte proliferation, increase the activity of acid phosphatase in peritoneal macrophages and strengthen peritoneal macrophages to devour neutral red in vitro in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, LMWHA-1 and LMWHA-2 exhibited much stronger immunostimulatory activity than HA. For assay in vivo, LMWHA-1 and LMWHA-2 significantly increased the indices of spleen and thymus, the activity of lysozyme in serum and the swelling rate of earlap in delayed-type hypersensitivity in a dose-dependent manner. In the CAM model, the results showed that LMWHA-1, LMWHA-2 and HA suppressed angiogenesis in chicken embryos. Moreover, LMWHA-1 exhibited higher antiangiogenesis activity than LMWHA-2 and HA. All these results suggested that LMWHA might be a potential natural immunomodulator and a potential candidate compound for antiangiogenic.