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Evolution of anodised titanium for implant applications

Anodised titanium has a long history as a coating structure for implants due to its bioactive and ossified surface, which promotes rapid bone integration. In response to the growing literature on anodised titanium, this article is the first to revisit the evolution of anodised titanium as an implant coating. The review reports the process and mechanisms for the engineering of distinctive anodised titanium structures, the significant factors influencing the mechanisms of its formation, bioactivity, as well as recent pre- and post-surface treatments proposed to improve the performance of anodised titanium. The review then broadens the discussion to include future functional trends of anodised titanium, ranging from the provision of higher surface energy interactions in the design of biocomposite coatings (template stencil interface for mechanical interlock) to techniques for measuring the bone-to-implant contact (BIC), each with their own challenges. Overall, this paper provides up-to-date information on the impacts of the structure and function of anodised titanium as an implant coating in vitro and in/ex vivo tests, as well as the four key future challenges that are important for its clinical translations, namely (i) techniques to enhance the mechanical stability and (ii) testing techniques to measure the mechanical stability of anodised titanium, (iii) real-time/in-situ detection methods for surface reactions, and (iv) cost-effectiveness for anodised titanium and its safety as a bone implant coating.

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