A literature review and statistical analysis of photovoltaic-wind hybrid renewable system research by considering the most relevant 550 articles: an upgradable matrix literature database
Highlights•550 relevant papers were reviewed and used to create an upgradable matrix literature database.•Asia is the continent most involved in world research with Iran, India, and China.•The dry and temperate climate zones are the most investigated, Köppen climate group BWh.•Stand-alone hybrid systems and residential use are the most explored uses.•PV systems are preferred for low installed powers, while wind systems also for high installed powers.AbstractIn recent years, research has shown a growing interest in the use of hybrid wind photovoltaic (PV) systems that provide better performance compared to the use of a single component due to complementarity in meeting electricity demand. Over the past twenty-five years, hundreds of articles have addressed the topic of hybrid systems considering different configurations and final uses and, over the past decades, many reviews have made a comprehensive summary of various results obtained. However, some reviews deal with the research in a too general and qualitative way, without providing quantitative data, and other reviews are too focused on a specific topic aspect.To provide a qualitative-quantitative prospect of the research trend in the last twenty-five years, the present work is aimed at carrying out a literature review and statistical analysis starting from data extracted from the 550 most relevant and recent articles concerning hybrid systems, published between 1995 and 2020. The review aim was to produce an upgradable matrix literature database that schematizes the content of all articles in terms of different categories, such as the geographical distribution, their component configurations, operating mode and the auxiliary components used to support it, their intended uses and study methodologies (simulation, experimental, economic, energy, environmental and social analysis etc.) and software used. In addition, all the optimization algorithm, energy, economic, environmental and social indicators available in the literature were extracted and elaborated to identify the most used. The 550 articles were analysed, compared, and classified into several categories to provide an overall framework of the state of the art. The objective is to clearly and appropriately show important trends and findings in the development of hybrid wind and solar PV experimental, simulation and optimisation projects.Data are elaborated to obtain a statistical analysis for each category or a combination of categories. In particular, the analysis highlighted that research is more focused on testing systems in warm or temperate localities, with the Köppen climate groups B and C prevalent over the others. From the geographical point of view, Asia is the continent most involved in world research (with China, India and Iran the first three countries for total publications produced). However, also in other parts of the world, a growing interest was noticed for this technology. The prevalent tested system configuration mode is the stand-alone hybrid systems, in a wide variety of climates and especially for residential uses. Simulations are mostly implemented in the analysed publications, mainly through HOMER and MATLAB software. Parametric analysis is widely used for optimal system design with a large variety of techniques. In particular, the system performance is examined mostly from an energy point of view. Economic analysis is also very common, alone or in combination with energy analysis. The most frequently used optimization algorithms are the particle swarm optimization (PSO) and genetic algorithm (GA), while the loss of power supply probability (LPSP) and renewable fraction (RE) for the energy analysis, the net present cost (NPC) and cost of energy (COE) for the economic analysis and the emissions (E) of CO2 for the environmental analysis are most widespread indicators.Finally, an analysis on the size of the system components is performed to study which renewable source is more preferred at low and high installed power, for stand-alone, grid-connected systems and overall, considering different intended uses. The analysis highlights that PV systems are preferred at low installed powers, especially for residential use and stand-alone mode, while wind systems, in addition to being extensively used for low installed powers, demonstrates higher employment compared to PV systems as the power increases.The paper findings and upgradable matrix literature database are proposed as a valuable tool for engineers, experts and national and international policymakers.