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Recent advances in synthesis and application of polymer nanocomposites for water and wastewater treatment

Highlights•Current situation of water crisis and related challenges are briefed.•Current water treatment technologies and the efforts made to resolve their shortcomings are summarized.•Recent advances in synthesis and application of polymer nanocomposites (PNCs) for water treatment are reviewed.•The role of physics, chemistry, and structural properties of PNCs in removal of pollutants from water are discussed.AbstractClean water scarcity combined with environmental impacts of municipal and industrial wastewater necessitates the development of new technologies for clean water production and removal of impurities and toxic contaminants from water and wastewater. Research pertaining to polymer nanocomposites (PNCs) has gained considerable attention in recent years owing to the opportunities that they can provide for a variety of applications. This article first describes the problems and challenges related to the water scarcity, quality, availability, and treatment and then summarizes the current water treatment technologies and recent advances to resolve their deficiencies. Recent developments such as the application of biomaterials, nanomaterials, polymers, microbial fuel cells, bioreactors, microwave and ultrasound technologies are summarized. This article provides a relatively comprehensive review on the application of PNCs in water and wastewater treatment over the past 20 years. Different natural and synthetic polymer nanocomposites including clay-, metal-, and carbon-based PNCs applied for water detoxification and removal of various contaminants including inorganic, organic, and oily pollutants are discussed. Physics, chemistry, and structural properties of polymer matrices and nanofillers are discussed and the effect of different synthesis approaches of PNCs on water treatment efficiency is distinguished.


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