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Review on biomass feedstocks, pyrolysis mechanism and physicochemical properties of biochar: State-of-the-art framework to speed up vision of circular bioeconomy

Highlights•Sustainability is motivating aspect in management of biomass feedstocks supply chain.•Report examines relationships of biomass feedstock composition and pyrolysis products.•Physicochemical properties of biochar influences structure-application relationships.•Current challenges covered to achieve viable biochar production and desired biochar.AbstractThe biochar is a solid carbon-rich, porous material produced by the thermochemical conversion of a diverse range of biomass feedstocks under an inert atmosphere (i.e., in the absence of oxygen). We can produce the biochar at all likely scales, ranging from the industrial to the domestic level and even at individual farms, thus, the biochar industry is leading as a most appropriate at different socioeconomic settings. The possibility of sustainable biochar production practices and multi-functionality features make it a promising candidate to fulfill an increasing demand in the fields of soil amendment, agricultural sustainability, environmental protection, cutting-edge materials, and to achieve circular bioeconomy and mitigation of climate change. An available fraction of waste biomass (agroforestry waste, biomass crops, agricultural residues, mill residues, and animal manure, and many more) can be used efficiently in pyrolysis and converted into desired biochar materials, besides this alternative energy products, such as syngas, bio-oil, electricity generation, and process heat. This report emphasizes the fate of biomass composition, pyrolysis mechanisms, and applications of modern analytical and characterization techniques that are being adopted, applied, and standardized to improve understandings of molecular, structural, and surface properties characteristics of biochar. To achieve precisely designed biochar, there is a need to understand the latest advances in biochar materialization mechanisms and structure-application relationships to speed up their agronomic applications and to achieve a zero-waste dream. This report also summarizes a wide range of literature published on feedstocks, pyrolysis, and biochar and suggests several practical recommendations appropriate to implement and bring together specific details on the thermochemical conversion of biomass, desired biochar properties, organic and inorganic phases, and the significance to the agronomic applications.Graphical abstractA schematic illustration of sustainable biochar production, application, and impact on global climate.Download : Download high-res image (207KB)Download : Download full-size image

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