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Digging deeper through glucose metabolism and its regulators in cancer and metastasis

Highlights•HIF-1 increases glycolytic enzymes expression.•Oncogenes Ras, Src and MYC induce HIF-1 expression.•HK-2 overexpression are associated with metastatic situation.•IGF1-R inhibitors strongly inhibit cell growth in hormone-resistant breast cancer cells that have lost ER.•Insulin and IGF-I stimulate sex hormones production, and play an essential role in breast and endometrium cancer.•Oncogenes such as HIF-1, MYC and KRAS increase glucose uptake in cancer cells via inducing GLUTs expression.AbstractGlucose metabolism enzymes and transporters play major role in cancer development and metastasis. In this study, we discuss glucose metabolism, transporters, receptors, hormones, oncogenes and tumor suppressors which interact with glucose metabolism and we try to discuss their major role in cancer development and cancer metabolism. We try to highlight the. Metabolic changes in cancer and metastasis upregulation of glycolysis is observed in many primary and metastatic cancers and aerobic glycolysis is the most favorable mechanism for glucose metabolism in cancer cells, and it is a kind of evolutionary change. The question that is posed at this juncture is: Can we use aerobic glycolysis phenotype and enzymes beyond this mechanism in estimating cancer prognosis and metastasis? Lactate is a metabolite of glucose metabolism and it is a key player in cancer and metastasis in both normoxic and hypoxic condition so lactate dehydrogenase can be a good prognostic biomarker. Furthermore, monocarboxylic transporter which is the main lactate transporter can be good target in therapeutic studies. Glycolysis enzymes are valuable enzymes in cancer and metastasis diagnosis and can be used as therapeutic targets in cancer treatment. Designing a diagnostic and prognostic profile for cancer metastasis seems to be possible base on glycolysis enzymes and glucose transporters. Also, glucose metabolism enzymes and agents can give us a clear vision in estimating cancer metastasis. We can promote a panel of genes that detect genetic changes in glucose metabolism agents to diagnose cancer metastasis.Graphical abstractDownload : Download high-res image (105KB)Download : Download full-size image


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