Molecular characteristics of Clostridium difficile isolates from human and animals in the North Eastern region of India
Highlights•Clostridum difficile was isolated from human, cattle, pig and poultry.•Diverse ribotypes were identified among C. difficile from different species.•Most toxigenic isolates (A+B+) from man and pig also carried cdtA/cdtB.•Three toxinotypes of C. difficile namely 0, VI and XXXIII were identified.•PFGE analysis could not further differentiate similar ribotype/toxinotype.AbstractA total of 1034 samples were collected from different sources and C. difficile was isolated from 18 (9.04%) of 199 human, 9 (4.89%) of 184 cattle, 29 (12.44%) of 233 pig, and from 23 (13.94%) of 165 poultry samples. Variations were observed on the rate of isolation according to age and clinical conditions (diarrhoea). None of the samples from cow, sheep, goat, local chicken, and wild animals yielded any C. difficile. Out of those isolates, 8, 2, 19 and 6 isolates from human, cattle, pig and poultry, respectively were toxigenic. The toxigenic isolates carried both tcdA, and tcdB (A+B+) and most of the human and the pig isolates were also positive for binary toxin genes (cdtA and cdtB). The A+B+ isolates belonged to three different toxinotypes (0, VI and XXXIII). Human and pig A+B+ isolates belonged to three (045, 126 and ACD 019) and four (046, 087, 126 and ACD 011) different ribotypes, respectively and the ribotypes of two cattle isolates were 014 and ACD 010. Six A+B+ avian isolates belonged to six different ribotypes (014, 087, SLO 134, SLO 160, ACD 012, ACD 014). The non-toxigenic isolates from human, cattle, pig and poultry were grouped into 7, 4, 4 and 7 different ribotypes, respectively. PFGE analysis could not differentiate similar ribotypes/toxinotypes of toxigenic isolates. All the toxigenic isolates showed cytopathic effect on Vero and Hela cell monolayers at 1:100 dilutions of cell-free culture supernatants within 18–20 h of inoculation.
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