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Recent advancements in applications of ionic liquids in synthetic construction of heterocyclic scaffolds: A spotlight

Highlights•Coverage of ILs used for synthesis of heterocycles reported during 2013–2020.•Use of ionic liquids as solvent and catalysts in synthetic construction of heterocycles.•Spotlight on key mechanistic insights of ILs to catalyze organic transformation.•A discussion on limitations and challenges in use of ILs in organic synthesis.AbstractHeterocycles constitute the integral part of the most of United States food and drug administration (USFDA) approved drugs. Over the past decade, ionic liquids have emerged as a clean, efficient and environmentally benign alternative to the hazardous volatile organic solvents in addition to numerous other remarkable applications owing to their renewability, biodegradability, abundance and inexpensive nature. These properties could be finely tuned based on the demand of several applications in chemical transformations through alteration of their compositional counterparts such as; anions and cations. The current work emphasizes the significant insights into the undisputable applications of these ionic liquids such as catalyst, solvent, co-solvent, ligand in homo and heterogeneous reactions and their use as support in several synthetic transformations. Significant efforts have been made to provide critical inputs on the mechanistic insights such as hydrogen bond formation, amphiphilic electrophile-nucleophile dual activation, bifunctional catalysis, phase-transfer catalysis, and organocatalysis for ionic liquid catalyzed organic transformation. Additionally, the present comprehensive and critical review shall help the reader to select the suitable ILs for synthesizing of desired heterocycles. The present review shall focus on recent advancements and applications of ionic liquids as solvent and catalysts in the synthesis of heterocycles reported from 2013 to 2020.Graphical abstractThe present review will provide the updates on their synthetic transformations, reported during 2013–2020 following the classification of reported ILs, and anticipations with excitement to the next.Download : Download high-res image (82KB)Download : Download full-size image


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