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Smart/stimuli-responsive hydrogels: Cutting-edge platforms for tissue engineering and other biomedical applications

Highlights•Different types of smart/stimuli-responsive hydrogels were outlined.•Different approaches to synthesize and design smart/stimuli-responsive hydrogels were discussed.•The exploitation of smart/stimuli-responsive hydrogels in diverse biomedical applications was highlighted.•Current challenges and future directions for use of smart/stimuli-responsive hydrogels were presented.AbstractRecently, biomedicine and tissue regeneration have emerged as great advances that impacted the spectrum of healthcare. This left the door open for further improvement of their applications to revitalize the impaired tissues. Hence, restoring their functions. The implementation of therapeutic protocols that merge biomimetic scaffolds, bioactive molecules, and cells plays a pivotal role in this track. Smart/stimuli-responsive hydrogels are remarkable three-dimensional (3D) bioscaffolds intended for tissue engineering and other biomedical purposes. They can simulate the physicochemical, mechanical, and biological characters of the innate tissues. Also, they provide the aqueous conditions for cell growth, support 3D conformation, provide mechanical stability for the cells, and serve as potent delivery matrices for bioactive molecules. Many natural and artificial polymers were broadly utilized to design these intelligent platforms with novel advanced characteristics and tailored functionalities that fit such applications. In the present review, we highlighted the different types of smart/stimuli-responsive hydrogels with emphasis on their synthesis scheme. Besides, the mechanisms of their responsiveness to different stimuli were elaborated. Their potential for tissue engineering applications was discussed. Furthermore, their exploitation in other biomedical applications as targeted drug delivery, smart biosensors, actuators, 3D and 4D printing, and 3D cell culture were outlined. In addition, we threw light on smart self-healing hydrogels and their applications in biomedicine. Eventually, we presented their future perceptions in biomedical and tissue regeneration applications. Conclusively, current progress in the design of smart/stimuli-responsive hydrogels enhances their prospective to function as intelligent, and sophisticated systems in different biomedical applications.Graphical abstractDownload : Download high-res image (195KB)Download : Download full-size image

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