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Reprogramming microorganisms for the biosynthesis of astaxanthin via metabolic engineering

There is an increasing demand for astaxanthin in food, feed, cosmetics and pharmaceutical applications because of its superior anti-oxidative and coloring properties. However, naturally produced astaxanthin is expensive, mainly due to low productivity and limited sources. Reprogramming of microorganisms for astaxanthin production via metabolic engineering is a promising strategy. We primarily focus on the application of synthetic biology, enzyme engineering and metabolic engineering in enhancing the synthesis and accumulation of astaxanthin in microorganisms in this review. We also discuss the biosynthetic pathways of astaxanthin within natural producers, and summarize the achievements and challenges in reprogramming microorganisms for enhancing astaxanthin production. This review illuminates recent biotechnological advances in microbial production of astaxanthin. Future perspectives on utilization of new technologies for boosting microbial astaxanthin production are also discussed.


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