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Utilizing chemometrics and geographical information systems to evaluate spatial and temporal variations of coastal water quality

Highlights•Combination of horizontal distribution ArcGIS maps of nutrients and chemometrics.•Concentration of nutrients decreases from nearshore to offshore.•Six latent PCs were retained which are accounted for 93.67% of total variance.•Cluster analysis and PCA have recognized three different patterns of water quality.AbstractThe purpose of this study was to investigate 11 parameters, including orthophosphate (PO4-P), silicate (SiO3-Si), nitrate (NO3-N), nitrite (NO2-N), ammonia (NH4-N), chlorophyll-a (CHL), water temperature (T), dissolved oxygen (DO), pH, electrical conductivity (EC), and salinity (Sal) in Bushehr coastal waters at 23 stations during dry and wet seasons (2017–2018). The horizontal distribution ArcGIS maps of nutrients along with the chemometric multivariate methods of principal component analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis were used to assess both the spatial and temporal variations in water quality dataset of the coastal waters without losing important information, and also to screen and graphically display the patterns in the dataset which enables finding possible contamination sources as well as their distribution. Statistical analysis exhibited that except for PO4-P and pH, all the other parameters were significantly different (p <0.05) between two seasons. Furthermore, concentration of all the nutrients was higher in the wet season compared to the dry season, and their concentration decreased from the nearshore to offshore waters, possibly due to sewage runoff. Using the Scree plot, six latent PCs were retained which accounted for 93.67% of the total variance of the dataset. Furthermore, three different patterns of water quality based on marine characteristics and anthropogenic effects were found by PCA and cluster analysis.Graphical abstractDownload : Download high-res image (139KB)Download : Download full-size image

بهره‌گیری از سیستم‌های اطلاعات جغرافیایی و جغرافیایی برای ارزیابی تغییرات فضایی و زمانی کیفیت آب ساحلی

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