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Synergistic Oxygen Generation and Reactive Oxygen Species Scavenging by Manganese Ferrite/Ceria Co-decorated Nanoparticles for Rheumatoid Arthritis Treatment

Poor O2 supply to the infiltrated immune cells in the joint synovium of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) up-regulates hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF-1α) expression and induces reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, both of which exacerbate synovial inflammation. Synovial inflammation in RA can be resolved by eliminating pro-inflammatory M1 macrophages and inducing anti-inflammatory M2 macrophages. Because hypoxia and ROS in the RA synovium play a crucial role in the induction of M1 macrophages and reduction of M2 macrophages, herein, we develop manganese ferrite and ceria nanoparticle-anchored mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MFC-MSNs) that can synergistically scavenge ROS and produce O2 for reducing M1 macrophage levels and inducing M2 macrophages for RA treatment. MFC-MSNs exhibit a synergistic effect on O2 generation and ROS scavenging that is attributed to the complementary reaction of ceria nanoparticles (NPs) that can scavenge intermediate hydroxyl radicals generated by manganese ferrite NPs in the process of O2 generation during the Fenton reaction, leading to the efficient polarization of M1 to M2 macrophages both in vitro and in vivo. Intra-articular administration of MFC-MSNs to rat RA models alleviated hypoxia, inflammation, and pathological features in the joint. Furthermore, MSNs were used as a drug-delivery vehicle, releasing the anti-rheumatic drug methotrexate in a sustained manner to augment the therapeutic effect of MFC-MSNs. This study highlights the therapeutic potential of MFC-MSNs that simultaneously generate O2 and scavenge ROS, subsequently driving inflammatory macrophages to the anti-inflammatory subtype for RA treatment.


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