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Clinical Applications of Biological Dosimetry in Patients Exposed to Low Dose Radiation Due to Radiological, Imaging or Nuclear Medicine Procedures

Radiation dosimetric biomarkers have found applications beyond radiation protection area and now are actively introduced into clinical practice. Cytogenetic assays appeared to be a valuable tool for individualized quantifying radiation effects in patients, with high capability for assessing genotoxicity of various medical exposure modalities and providing meaningful radiation dose estimates for prognoses of radiation-related cancer risk. This review summarized current data on the use of biological dosimetry methods in patients undergoing various medical irradiations to low doses. The highlighted topics include basic aspects of biological dosimetry and its limitations in the range of low radiation doses, and main patterns of in vivo induction of radiation biomarkers in clinical exposure scenarios, occurring in X-ray diagnostics, computed tomography, interventional radiology, low dose radiotherapy, and nuclear medicine (internally administered 131I and other radiopharmaceuticals). Additionally, several specific issues, examined by biodosimetry techniques, are analysed, such as contrast media effect, radiation response in pediatric patients, impact of magnetic resonance imaging, evaluation of radioprotectors, detection of patients’ abnormal intrinsic radiosensitivity and dose estimation in persons involved in medical radiation incidents. A prognosis of possible directions for further improvements in this area includes the automation of cytogenetic analysis, introduction of molecular biodosimeters and development of multiparametric biodosimetry platforms. A potential approach to the advanced biodosimetry of internal exposure and/or low dose external irradiation is suggested; this can be a multiparametric platform based on the combination of the γ-H2AX foci, dicentric, and translocation assays, each applied in the optimum postexposure time range, with the amalgamation of the dose estimates. The study revealed the necessity of further research, which might clarify medical radiation safety concerns for patients via using stringent biodosimetry methodology.

پر ارجاع‌ترین مقالات مرتبط:

  • مقاله Radiology, Nuclear Medicine and imaging
  • ترجمه مقاله Radiology, Nuclear Medicine and imaging
  • مقاله None
  • ترجمه مقاله None
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