Sorption of Trace Elements on Mineral Surfaces: Modern Perspectives from Spectroscopic Studies, and Comments on Sorption in the Marine Environment
The partitioning (or sorption) of trace elements from aqueous solutions onto mineral surfaces and natural organic matter (NOM) has played a major role in determining the trace element content of natural waters. This review examines sorption processes on mineral surfaces for nine trace elements (Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Sr, Cd, Hg, Pb), focusing on the results of modern x-ray spectroscopic studies. Such studies provide unique information on the structure and composition of sorption products, including their mode of attachment to mineral surfaces or functional groups in NOM under in situ conditions (i.e., with aqueous solution present at 25°C). The types of chemical reactions (acid-base, ligand exchange, redox, dissolution/reprecipitation) that can occur at mineral-aqueous solution interfaces are also reviewed, and some of the factors that affect the reactivity of mineral surfaces are discussed, including changes in the geometric and electronic structures of mineral surfaces when they first react with aqueous solutions and constraints on the bonding of adions to surface functional groups imposed by Pauling bond valence sums. A summary of electrical double layer (EDL) theory is presented, including the results of several recent x-ray spectroscopic and parameter regression studies of the EDL for metal-(oxyhydr) oxide-aqueous solution interfaces. The effects of common inorganic and organic complexants on the sorption of trace metal cations at mineral-solution interfaces are considered, in the context of spectroscopic studies where possible. The results of sorption studies of trace metal cations on NOM, common bacteria, and marine biomass are reviewed, and the effects of coatings of NOM and microbial biofilms on cation uptake on mineral surfaces are discussed, based on macroscopic and spectroscopic data. The objective here is to assess the relative importance of inorganic versus organic sorption processes in aquatic systems. The paper concludes with a discussion of the effects of water composition on trace element removal mechanisms, with the aim of providing an understanding of the effects of the high salinity of seawater on trace element sorption processes. The information presented in this review indicates that sorption processes on mineral, NOM, and microbial and algal surfaces, including true adsorption and precipitation, are highly effective at removing trace elements from natural waters and generally supports Krauskopf's (1956) conclusion that such processes are likely responsible for the present trace element concentrations in seawater.
Sorption مولفههای ردیابی در سطوح مواد معدنی: دیدگاههای مدرن از مطالعات spectroscopic، و توضیحات مربوط به Sorption در محیط دریایی
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