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Microbial glucoamylases: characteristics and applications

Crit Rev Biotechnol. 2009;29(3):225-55. doi: 10.1080/07388550903136076.Microbial glucoamylases: characteristics and applications.Kumar P1, Satyanarayana T.Author information1Department of Microbiology, University of Delhi South Campus, Benito Juarez Road, New Delhi, India.AbstractGlucoamylase is one of the oldest and widely used biocatalysts in food industry. The major application of glucoamylase is the saccharification of partially processed starch/dextrin to glucose, which is an essential substrate for numerous fermentation processes and a range of food and beverage industries. Glucoamylase for commercial purposes has traditionally been produced employing filamentous fungi, although a diverse group of microorganisms is reported to produce glucoamylase, since they secrete large quantities of the enzyme extracellularly. The commercially used fungal glucoamylases have certain limitations such as moderate thermostability, acidic pH requirement, and slow catalytic activity that increase the process cost. Consequently, the search for newer glucoamylases and protein engineering to improve pH and temperature optima leading to amelioration in catalytic efficiency of existing enzymes have been the major areas of research over the years. The present review focuses attention on the recent advances in molecular biology and protein engineering of glucoamylase to improve its production and functional properties including the so far success achieved in isolating mutants with enhanced thermostability and selectivity, higher pH optimum and improved catalytic activity. A comprehensive account is included on the diversity, regulation of production, classification, purification and properties, and potential applications of microbial glucoamylases to provide an overview on all the important aspects of the enzyme.PMID: 19708824 DOI: 10.1080/07388550903136076 [Indexed for MEDLINE] SharePublication types, MeSH terms, SubstancesPublication typesResearch Support, Non-U.S. Gov'tReviewMeSH termsEnzyme StabilityFungal Proteins/chemistryFungal Proteins/geneticsFungal Proteins/isolation & purificationFungal Proteins/metabolism*Fungi/enzymology*Fungi/geneticsGlucan 1,4-alpha-Glucosidase/chemistryGlucan 1,4-alpha-Glucosidase/geneticsGlucan 1,4-alpha-Glucosidase/isolation & purificationGlucan 1,4-alpha-Glucosidase/metabolism*Industrial Microbiology/methods*Protein EngineeringStarch/metabolism*SubstancesFungal ProteinsStarchGlucan 1,4-alpha-GlucosidaseLinkOut - more resourcesFull Text SourcesTaylor & FrancisOther Literature SourcesCited by Patents in - The LensMedicalMolds - MedlinePlus Health Information


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