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Effect of Alcohol on Lipids and Lipoproteins in Relation to Atherosclerosis

Several studies indicate that light-to-moderate alcohol consumption is associated with a low prevalence of coronary heart disease. An increase in high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol is associated with alcohol intake and appears to account for approximately half of alcohol's cardioprotective effect. In addition to changes in the concentration and composition of lipoproteins, alcohol consumption may alter the activities of plasma proteins and enzymes involved in lipoprotein metabolism: cholesteryl ester transfer protein, phospholipid transfer protein, lecithin: cholesterol acyltransferase, lipoprotein lipase, hepatic lipase, paraoxonase-1 and phospholipases. Alcohol intake also results in modifications of lipoprotein particles: low sialic acid content in apolipoprotein components of lipoprotein particles (e.g., HDL apo E and apo J) and acetaldehyde modification of apolipoproteins. In addition, “abnormal” lipids, phosphatidylethanol, and fatty acid ethyl esters formed in the presence of ethanol are associated with lipoproteins in plasma. The effects of lipoproteins on the vascular wall cells (endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells, and monocyte/macrophages) may be modulated by ethanol and the alterations further enhanced by modified lipids. The present review discusses the effects of alcohol on lipoproteins in cholesterol transport, as well as the novel effects of lipoproteins on vascular wall cells.

تاثیر الکل بر Lipids و Lipoproteins در رابطه با atherosclerosis

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