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Nanohybridization of Low-Dimensional Nanomaterials: Synthesis, Classification, and Application

Nanomaterials have attracted much attention from academic to industrial research. General methodologies are needed to impose architectural order in low-dimensional nanomaterials composed of nanoobjects of various shapes and sizes, such as spherical particles, rods, wires, combs, horns, and other non specified geometrical architectures. These nanomaterials are the building blocks for nanohybrid materials, whose applications have improved and will continuously enhance the quality of the daily life of mankind. In this article, we present a comprehensive review on the synthesis, dimension, properties, and present and potential future applications of nanomaterials and nanohybrids. Due to the large number of review articles on specific dimension, morphology, or application of nanomaterials, we will focus on different forms of nanomaterials, such as, linear, particulate, and miscellaneous forms. We believe that almost all the nanomaterials and nanohybrids will come under these three categories. Every form or dimension or morphology has its own significant properties and advantages. These low-dimensional nanomaterials can be integrated to create novel nano-composite material applications for next-generation devices needed to address the current energy crisis, environmental sustainability, and better performance requirements. We discuss the synthesis, properties, and morphology of different forms of nanomaterials (building blocks). Moreover, we elaborate on the synthesis, modification, and application of nanohybrids. The applications of these nanomaterials and nanohybrids in sensors, solar cells, lithium batteries, electronic, catalysis, photocatalysis, electrocatalysis, and bio-based applications will be detailed. The time is now ripe to explore new nanohybrids that use individual nanomaterial components as basic building blocks, potentially affording additionally novel behavior and leading to new, useful applications. In this regard, the combination or integration of linear nanorods/nanowires and spherical nanoparticles to produce mixed-dimensionality, higher-level nanocomposites of greater complexity is an interesting theme, which we explore in this review article.

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