Adipocyte and steroidogenic cell cross-talk in polycystic ovary syndrome
Metabolic and endocrine alterations in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) affect adipose tissue mass and distribution. PCOS is characterised by hyperandrogenism, obesity and adipocyte dysfunction. Hyperandrogenism in PCOS drives dysfunctional adipocyte secretion of potentially harmful adipocytokines. Glucocorticoids and sex-steroids modulate adipocyte development and function. For their part, adipocyte products interact with adrenal and ovarian steroidogenic cells. Currently, the relationship between adipocyte and steroidogenic cells is not clear, and for these reasons, it is important to elucidate the interrelationship between these cells in women with and without PCOS.
This comprehensive review aims to assess current knowledge regarding the interrelationship between adipocytes and adrenal and ovarian steroidogenic cells in animal models and humans with or without PCOS.
We searched for articles published in English and Portuguese in PubMed. Keywords were as follows: polycystic ovary syndrome, steroidogenesis, adrenal glands, theca cells, granulosa cells, adipocytes, adipocytokines, obesity, enzyme activation, and cytochrome P450 enzymes. We expanded the search into the references from the retrieved articles.
Glucocorticoids and sex-steroids modulate adipocyte differentiation and function. Dysfunctional adipocyte products play important roles in the metabolic and endocrine pathways in animals and women with PCOS. Most adipokines participate in the regulation of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal and ovarian axes. In animal models of PCOS, hyperinsulinemia and poor fertility are common; various adipokines modulate ovarian steroidogenesis, depending on the species. Women with PCOS secrete unbalanced levels of adipocyte products, characterised by higher levels of leptin and lower levels of adiponectin. Leptin expression positively correlates with body mass index, waist/hip ratio and levels of total cholesterol, triglyceride, luteinising hormone, oestradiol and androgens. Leptin inhibits the production of oestradiol and, in granulosa cells, may modulate 17-hydroxylase and aromatase enzyme activities. Adiponectin levels negatively correlate with fat mass, body mass index, waist–hip ratio, glucose, insulin and triglycerides, and decrease androgen production by altering expression of luteinising hormone receptor, steroidogenic acute regulatory protein, cholesterol-side-chain cleavage enzyme and 17-hydroxylase. Resistin expression positively correlates with body mass index and testosterone, and promotes the expression of 17-hydroxylase enzyme in theca cells. The potential benefits of adipokines in the treatment of women with PCOS require more investigation.
The current data regarding the relationship between adipocyte products and steroidogenic cells are conflicting in animals and humans. Polycystic ovary syndrome is an excellent model to investigate the interrelationship among adipocyte and steroidogenic cells. Women with PCOS manifest some pathological conditions associated with hyperandrogenism and adipocyte products. In animals, cross-talk between cells may vary according to species, and the current review suggests opportunities to test new medications to prevent or even reverse several harmful sequelae of PCOS in humans. Further studies are required to investigate the possible therapeutic application of adipokines in women with obese and non-obese PCOS. Meanwhile, when appropriate, metformin use alone, or associated with flutamide, may be considered for therapeutic purposes.
تلاقی سلولهای چربی و استروئیدوژن در سندرم تخمدان پلی کیستیک
سال نشر: 2021 | تعداد ارجاع: 306
Oxford University Press (OUP)
Human Reproduction Update
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