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Marine omega‐3 (n‐3) phospholipids: A comprehensive review of their properties, sources, bioavailability, and relation to brain health

Abstract For several decades, there has been considerable interest in marine‐derived long chain n‐3 fatty acids (n‐3 LCPUFAs) due to their outstanding health benefits. n‐3 LCPUFAs can be found in nature either in triglycerides (TAGs) or in phospholipid (PL) form. From brain health point of view, PL n‐3 is more bioavailable and potent compared to n‐3 in TAG form, as only PL n‐3 is able to cross the blood–brain barrier and can be involved in brain biochemical reactions. However, PL n‐3 has been ignored in the fish oil industry and frequently removed as an impurity during degumming processes. As a result, PL products derived from marine sources are very limited compared to TAG products. Commercially, PLs are being used in pharmaceutical industries as drug carriers, in food manufacturing as emulsifiers and in cosmetic industries as skin care agents, but most of the PLs used in these applications are produced from vegetable sources that contain less (without EPA, DPA, and DHA) or sometimes no n‐3 LCPUFAs. This review provides a comprehensive account of the properties, structures, and major sources of marine PLs, and provides focussed discussion of their relationship to brain health. Epidemiological, laboratory, and clinical studies on n‐3 LCPUFAs enriched PLs using different model systems in relation to brain and mental health that have been published over the past few years are discussed in detail.

سیستم‌های دریایی امگا ۳ (n - ۳)فسفولیپیدها: بررسی جامع ویژگی‌های آن‌ها، منابع، فراهمی زیستی، و ارتباط با سلامت مغزی

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