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Supplementation of dietary apple cider vinegar as an organic acidifier on the growth performance, digestive enzymes and mucosal immunity of green terror (
The present study was designed to investigate the effects of dietary apple cider vinegar (ACV) on digestive enzyme activity and growth performance as well as immune responses and antibacterial activity of skin mucus in green terror (Andinoacara rivulatus). Fish were fed diets supplemented with 0%, 1%, 2% and 4% of ACV (40.830 ppm acetic acid concentration) for 63 days. The final weight and weight gain values were observed to be significantly higher in fish fed with 2% of ACV compared to the control group (p < .05). ACV inclusion in the diets had significant effects on SGR (%) and FCR values (p > .05). ACV treatment resulted in a significant increase in the intestinal protease, α‐amylase, lipase and alkaline phosphatase activities compared to control (p < .05). The activities of digestive enzymes in fish fed with 2% and 4% of ACV diets were significantly higher than the other groups (p < .05). The total protein content, alternative haemolytic complement, alkaline phosphatase, total immunoglobulins and lysozyme activities of skin mucus increased significantly in fish fed with ACV diets (p < .05). In conclusion, administration of ACV enhanced digestive enzyme activity, growth performance, immune responses and the immune properties of skin mucus, and it can be used as a natural growth promoter and immunostimulant in green terror culture.
Supplementation از سرکه سیب به عنوان یک acidifier آلی بر روی عملکرد رشد، آنزیمهای گوارشی و مصونیت mucosal از تروریسم سبز
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