Visual and digital tooth shade selection methods, related effective factors and conditions, and their accuracy and precision: A literature review
Despite developments of dental shade selection methods, shade selection is still a challenge affecting esthetic outcomes. The purpose of this review was to discuss visual and digital shade taking methods, related effective factors and conditions, and their accuracy and precision to find out the most accurate, precise shade selection method available in dentistry.
The key terms of accuracy, background, ceramic, color, colorimeter, color analysis, color science, color measurement, color measuring instrument, color matching, composite resin, dental/tooth shade guide, digital camera, esthetics, imaging, imaging application/program/ software, intraoral scanner, light source, photography, precision, shade, shade matching/ determination/prediction/reproduction/selection, shade taking device, spectrophotometer, spectrophotometry, tooth color measurement, tooth color/shade, and visual perception were used separately and jointly to detect related English-language articles published between January 1, 1985, and January 1, 2021. Electronic/non-electronic searches of Google Scholar/PubMed/Scopus/Web of Science were accomplished. Consequently, 249 articles were considered. Accordingly, the digital methods show higher accuracy and precision compared to the visual methods while requiring to be enhanced regarding accuracy to achieve ideal shade taking results.
Dental spectrophotometers provide the highest overall accuracy and precision among different shade selection methods while needing clinical setting to control related effective factors/conditions and technological improvement to perform optimally.
Different factors can affect the accuracy and precision of tooth shade selection methods and devices. The understanding of these effective factors may lead to a standard shade taking protocol using accurate, precise methods and devices.