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The Eurasian SE Asian margin as a modern example of an accretionary orogen

Abstract The Eurasian margin in SE Asia is a geologically complex region situated at the edge of the Sundaland continent, and is mainly within Indonesia. The external margins of Sundaland are tectonically active zones characterized by intense seismicity and volcanic activity. The region is an obvious modern analogue for older orogens, with a continental core reassembled from blocks rifted from Gondwana, and surrounded by subduction zones for much of the Mesozoic and Cenozoic. It is a mountain belt in the process of formation, and contains many features typically associated with older Pacific margin orogens: there is active subduction, transfer of material at subduction and strike-slip boundaries, collision of oceanic plate buoyant features, arcs and continents, and abundant magmatism. The orogenic belt surrounds Sundaland and stretches from Sumatra into eastern Indonesia and the Philippines. The orogen changes character and width from west to east. Its development can be tectonically described only in terms of several small plates and it includes several suture zones. The western part of the orogenic belt, where the Indian plate is subducted beneath continental crust, is a relatively narrow single suture. Further east the orogenic belt includes multiple sutures and is up to 2000 km wide; there is less continental crust and more arc and ophiolitic crust, and there are several marginal oceanic basins. The orogen has grown to its present size during the Mesozoic and Cenozoic as a result of subduction. Continental growth has occurred in an episodic way, related primarily to arrival of continental fragments at subduction margins, after which subduction resumed in new locations. There have been subordinate contributions from ophiolite accretion, and arc magmatism. Relatively small amounts of material have been accreted during subduction from the downgoing plate. In eastern Indonesia the wide plate boundary zone includes continental fragments and several arcs, but the arcs are most vulnerable to destruction and disappearance. Rollback in the Banda region has produced major extension within the collision zone, but future contraction will eliminate most of the evidence for it, leaving a collage of continental fragments, similar to the older parts of Sundaland.

حاشیه جنوب آسیا - جنوب آسیا به عنوان نمونه مدرن از an orogen

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