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Nebulized Lidocaine Administered to Infants and Children Undergoing Flexible Bronchoscopy

Study objectivesThe purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of nebulized lidocaine hydrochloride as a topical anesthetic for use during flexible bronchoscopy in infants and children.DesignThis was a prospective, randomized, double-blind study.PatientsTwenty consecutive patients scheduled for flexible bronchoscopy who were not intubated and had no known cardiac or hepatic disease comprised the study group.InterventionsThe patients were randomized to receive either 8 mg/kg or 4 mg/kg of nebulized 2% lidocaine by face mask prior to bronchoscopy.SettingThe study took place in a bronchoscopy suite at an academic medical center.MeasurementsTo determine systemic absorption, serum lidocaine levels were obtained. To assess efficacy of nebulized lidocaine as a topical anesthetic, changes in heart rate and blood pressure were recorded, and the bronchoscopist (who did not know the lidocaine dose used) rated the ease of passage of the bronchoscope through nose, vocal cords, trachea, bronchi, and all sites overall, and the degree of cough.ResultsNebulized lidocaine was safe, was well-tolerated, and provided adequate anesthesia for half of the patients. The serum lidocaine levels were much lower than the levels in the toxic range. There was a trend toward easier passage of the bronchoscope in the high-dose group at all sites noted previously that were evaluated.ConclusionNebulized lidocaine in doses up to 8 mg/kg appears to be safe and moderately effective as a topical anesthetic for flexible bronchoscopy in infants and children. The serum levels were remarkably low. Fifty percent of the subjects required no supplemental lidocaine.

Nebulized lidocaine به کودکان و کودکان با bronchoscopy انعطاف‌پذیر کمک می‌کند

مطالعه اصلی این مطالعه، ارزیابی ایمنی و اثربخشی efficacy of lidocaine به عنوان یک بی‌حسی موضعی برای استفاده در طول درمان انعطاف‌پذیر در نوزادان و and children.Desi بود که در یک مجموعه suite با ماسک صورت پیش از prior bronchoscopy.Sett انجام شد و urementsTo had rventionsThe medical an academic determine determine determine determine systemic systemic،،،، lidocaine serum obtained obtained obtained were were were were were were were were were were were were were serum serum serum serum serum serum serum serum serum serum serum serum serum serum serum serum serum serum serum serum serum serum serum serum serum serum serum serum serum serum serum serum serum serum serum serum serum serum serum serum serum was was was was was was was was was was was was was was was was was was was was was was was was was was was was was was was was was was was was was was was was was was was was was was was was was was was was was was was was was was was was was was was was was was was was was was was was was was was was was was was was was was was was was was was was was was was was was was was was was was was was was was was was was was was was was was was was was was was was was was was was was was was was was was was was was was was was was was was was was was was was was was was was was was was was was was was was was was was was was was was was was was was was was was was was was was was was was was was was was was was was was was was was was was was was was was was was was was was was was was was was was was was was was was was was was was was was was was was was was was was was was was was was was was was was was برای ارزیابی اثربخشی nebulized lidocaine به عنوان یک بی‌حسی موضعی، تغییر در ضربان قلب و فشار خون ثبت شد و the (که مقدار lidocaine مورد استفاده را نمی‌دانست)سهولت عبور از طریق بینی، تاره‌ای صوتی، نای، و همه سایت‌ها را ارزیابی کرد و بی‌حسی کافی برای نیمی از بیماران را فراهم کرد. سطح lidocaine سرم خیلی پایین‌تر از سطح ماده سمی بود. گرایشی به سمت عبور آسان‌تر از bronchoscope در گروه دوزهای بالا در تمامی سایت‌ها وجود داشت که قبلا گفته شده‌بود were lusionNebulized lidocaine در دوزهای بالاتر از ۸ میلی‌گرم بر کیلوگرم به نظر بی‌خطر و نسبتا موثر به عنوان داروی بی‌حسی موضعی در نوزادان و کودکان است. سطح سرم به طور قابل‌ملاحظه‌ای پایین بود. پنجاه درصد از افراد نیازمند هیچ گونه مکمل اضافی نیستند.
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