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Latest Carboniferous (Late Gzhelian) Fusulinids from Timor Leste and their Paleobiogeographic Affinities

An uppermost Gzhelian bioherm discovered in the central highlands of Timor Leste contains abundant foraminifera belonging to 17 genera. Representatives of the families Biseriamminidae, Biwaellidae, Bradyinidae, Cornuspiridae, Lasiodiscidae, Palaeotextulariidae, Pseudotaxidae, Ozawainellidae, Schubertellidae, Schwagerinidae, Staffellidae and Textrataxidae are present, including 21 species referred to known types and 12 species left in open nomenclature. Two newSchwagerinaspecies are described:Schwagerina timorensisnew species, andSchwagerina maubissensisnew species. The assemblage belongs to the uppermost GzhelianSchwagerina robusta–Ultradaixina bosbytauensisZone although a possible lowest Asselian correlation cannot be excluded (the nameUltradaixinais controversial and sometimes synonymized asBosbytauella. The case to resolve this issue has been submitted to the Bulletin of Zoological Nomenclature). The bioherm is the oldest carbonate unit so far recorded from the Maubisse Formation and the oldest sedimentary unit biostratigraphically dated in Timor. This discovery has implications for the latest Carboniferous–earliest Permian climate history of Timor that lay in the northern part of the north-south East Gondwana rift system along which the western margin of Australia later developed. The highest peak in fusulinid diversity within the Pennsylvanian–Cisuralian interval and a major marine transgression documented in many regions in Northern Pangaea took place during the latest Gzhelian to earliest Asselian and evidence for this is now extended to southern Pangaea. Cluster analysis, using the Jaccard similarity index at species level, of late Gzhelian fusulinids from 16 regions has been performed. This shows that the Timor fauna is most closely related to faunas from South China and the Changning-Menlian region of Yunnan (China). The assemblages here are distinct from those of three biogeographic regions (Arctic, Uralo-Asian and Irano-Taurids) recognized within the Tropical belt.

آخرین فوزولینیدهای کربونیفر (Gzhelian)از تیمور لسته و قرابت جغرافیای دیرینه آن‌ها

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