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Scientific Opinion on the safety of polyvinylpyrrolidone‐vinyl acetate copolymer for the proposed uses as a food additive

Abstract The Panel on Food Additives and Nutrient Sources added to Food provides a scientific opinion on the use of polyvinylpyrrolidone‐vinyl acetate (PVP/VA) copolymer in food supplements. PVP/VA copolymer is poorly absorbed orally and largely excreted intact in the faeces. No genotoxicity data are available. Both a 28‐day and a 90‐day feeding study with PVP/VA copolymer in the rat, revealed a NOAEL of 1000 mg/kg bw/day (highest dose tested). Oral administration of PVP/VA copolymer to male/female rats for 24 months and to male/female dogs for 52 weeks revealed NOAELs of 2800 mg/kg bw/day and 2500 mg/kg bw/day respectively (highest doses tested). No reproductive or developmental toxicity data are available. The exposure to PVP/VA copolymer from its use in food supplements and in pharmaceuticals is 23.4 mg/kg bw/day (adult high consumers) and 16 mg/kg bw/day (child high consumers). The toxicological database was too limited to derive an ADI. From the given range of NOAELs and the intake of PVP/VA copolymer, a Margin of Safety (MOS) varying from 43 to 120 for adults and from 63 to 175 for children can be calculated. These MOS are considered sufficient given the lack of absorption of PVP/VA, the fact that the NOAELs were the highest doses tested and that exposure estimates are based on worst case assumptions. From the maximum residual levels of VA, Margins of Exposure (MOE) of > 106 were calculated. The MOE for hydrazine were above 10000. The Panel concluded that the residual levels of hydrazine (up to a maximum of 1.0 mg/kg in the final product) are unlikely to be of safety concern, but considered it would be prudent to lower the level of hydrazine as far as reasonably achievable. The Panel concluded that the use of PVP/VA copolymer in solid food supplements as a binding/coating agent is unlikely to be of safety concern at the proposed uses.

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