Invited review: Fate of antibiotic residues, antibiotic-resistant bacteria, and antibiotic resistance genes in US dairy manure management systems
ABSTRACTUnited States dairy operations use antibiotics (primarily β-lactams and tetracyclines) to manage bacterial diseases in dairy cattle. Antibiotic residues, antibiotic-resistant bacteria (ARB), and antibiotic resistance genes (ARG) can be found in dairy manure and may contribute to the spread of antibiotic resistance (AR). Although β-lactam residues are rarely detected in dairy manure, tetracycline residues are common and perhaps persistent. Generally, <15% of bacterial pathogen dairy manure isolates are ARB, although resistance to some antibiotics (e.g., tetracycline) can be higher. Based on available data, the prevalence of medically important ARB on dairy operations is generally static or may be declining for antibiotic-resistant Staphylococcus spp. Over 60 ARG can be found in dairy manure (including β-lactam and tetracycline resistance genes), although correlations with antibiotic usage, residues, and ARB have been inconsistent, possibly because of sampling and analytical limitations. Manure treatment systems have not been specifically designed to mitigate AR, though certain treatments have some capacity to do so. Generally, well-managed aerobic compost treatments reaching higher peak temperatures (>60°C) are more effective at mitigating antibiotic residues than static stockpiles, although this depends on the antibiotic residue and their interactions. Similarly, thermophilic anaerobic digesters operating under steady-state conditions may be more effective at mitigating antibiotic residues than mesophilic or irregularly operated digesters or anaerobic lagoons. The number of ARB may decline during composting and digestion or be enriched as the bacterial communities in these systems shift, affecting relative ARG abundance or acquire ARG during treatment. Antibiotic resistance genes often persist through these systems, although optimal management and higher operating temperature may facilitate their mitigation. Less is known about other manure treatments, although separation technologies may be unique in their ability to partition antibiotic residues based on sorption and solubility properties. Needed areas of study include determining natural levels of AR in dairy systems, standardizing and optimizing analytical techniques, and more studies of operating on-farm systems, so that treatment system performance and actual human health risks associated with levels of antibiotic residues, ARB, and ARG found in dairy manure can be accurately assessed.
بررسی دعوتشده: سرنوشت باقی ماندههای آنتیبیوتیک، باکتری مقاوم در برابر آنتیبیوتیک، و ژنهای مقاومت در برابر آنتیبیوتیک در سیستمهای مدیریت دامداری ایالاتمتحده
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