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Effect of therapeutic administration of β-lactam antibiotics on the bacterial community and antibiotic resistance patterns in milk

ABSTRACTDairy cows with mastitis are frequently treated with antibiotics. The potential effect of antibiotics on the milk microbiome is still not clear. Therefore, the objective of this research was to investigate the effect of 2 commonly used cephalosporins on the milk microbiota of dairy cows and the antibiotic resistance genes in the milk. The milk samples were collected from 7 dairy cows at the period before medication (d 0), medication (d 1, 2, 3), withdrawal period (d 4, 6, 8), and the period after withdrawal (d 9, 11, 13, 15). We applied 16S rRNA sequencing to explore the microbiota changes, and antibiotic resistance patterns were investigated by quantitative PCR. The microbiota richness and diversity in each sample were calculated using the Chao 1 (richness), Shannon (diversity), and Simpson (diversity) indices. The cephalosporins treatment lowered the Simpson diversity value at the period of withdrawal. Members of the Enterobacter genera were the most affected bacteria associated with mastitis. Meanwhile, antibiotic resistance genes in the milk were also influenced by antibiotic treatment. The cephalosporins treatment raised the proportion of blaTEM in milk samples at the period of withdrawal. Therefore, the treatment of cephalosporins led to change in the milk microbiota and increase of β-lactam resistance gene in the milk at the time of withdrawal period.

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